2014

George, B., Hirschheim, R., and von Stetten, A. (2014)
Through the Lens of Social Capital: A Research Agenda for Studying IT Outsourcing
Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal (7:2), p. 107-134 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
Purpose: Motivated by the belief that the social capital concept enables IT outsourcing researchers to capture more of the nuances of the client-vendor relationship in IT outsourcing arrangements, this paper proposes a new research agenda for IT outsourcing. Design/methodology/approach: The paper builds a comprehensive framework of social capital based on Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) to examine the IT outsourcing life-cycle. Past research on IT outsourcing is examined applying the parameters of the framework to identify issues that have been addressed in research on IT outsourcing and to uncover the gaps in past research. Findings: The social capital framework is applied to IT outsourcing which suggests new avenues for future outsourcing research. Research limitations/implications: While past research has identified success factors for IT outsourcing, a significant number of outsourcing arrangement still fail to meet expectations. The research agenda presented in this paper encourages an examination of IT outsourcing from a different perspective to determine how to successfully manage IT outsourcing. Originality/value: The paper provides a new framework that is useful for identifying the relationships among past research in IT outsourcing as well as for identifying potential topics for future research.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Four 'W's of Face-To-Face - Suggesting an Enriched Perspective on Nearshoring Relationship Management
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Singapore

von Stetten, A. and Beimborn, D. (2014)
Analyzing the Effect of Proximity on Clan Control: Results from a Case Study Series on IS Nearshore Outsourcing
Proceedings of the 8th Global Sourcing Workshop, Val-d'Isére, France

2013

Beimborn, D. and von Stetten, A. (2013)
Effektives Management von Nearshore-Outsourcing-Arrangements: Ergebnisse einer Fallstudienserie in Osteuropa
Tagungsband zum Embedded Software Engineering Kongress 2013, Sindelfingen

View Abstract
Das Nearshore-Outsourcing von Softwareentwicklungsprojekten nach Zentral- oder Osteuropa wird unter deutschen Unternehmen immer beliebter, es gilt jedoch gewisse Management-Grundsätze zu berücksichtigen. Der Vortrag gibt einen Einblick in eine Fallstudienserie der Universität Bamberg, in deren Rahmen zahlreiche Nearshoring-Arrangements hinsichtlich Erfolgsfaktoren untersucht wurden. Dabei werden Fragen zur Gestaltung der Governance und Kontrolle, zu effektivem Wissenstransfer, zu geeigneten Face-to-Face-Strategien und auch zum Umgang mit kulturellen Distanzen betrachtet und Erfolgsfaktoren für das effektive Management von Nearshoring-Dienstleistern identifiziert.

Beimborn, D. and Wolf, M. (2013)
Challenges in Offshore Outsourcing Relationship Management - A Peruvian Perspective
Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago (IL)

View Abstract
In this paper, we examine challenges related with offshore outsourcing to Peru and their effect on relationship quality and outsourcing success. In three case studies, we interviewed clients and providers about their experiences with software development outsourcing from Anglo-American countries (U.S., Canada, Scotland) to Peru. We identified particular challenges which have at least a minor negative impact on relationship quality and outsourcing success, however, are manageable - the related management actions were extracted from the cases, as well. We argue that Peru becomes an interesting player in the global offshoring market and which particularities practitioners should be aware of when considering outsourcing to Peru.

Wiesinger, A. and Beimborn, D. (2013)
How management actions affect social exchanges in outsourcing relationships
Proceedings of the 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
This paper explores the effect of management actions on social exchanges in outsourcing relationships. Social exchanges between individuals constitute relationship quality between client and vendor, which is an important factor of outsourcing success. Based on the interaction approach, we develop a framework for management actions entailing three dimensions: the exchange targeted, the organization targeted and the effect on social exchanges. We apply the framework to studying a comprehensive case of an outsourcing relationship full of conflict. This proof-of-concept shows that it is vital to consider side effects of management actions on social exchanges as they indirectly influence outsourcing success.

2012

Beimborn, D. (2012)
Considering the Relative Relevance of Outsourcing Relationship Quality
Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Barcelona, Spain

View Abstract
Outsourcing relationship quality (ORQ) has shown to be an important construct in previous research on outsourcing effectiveness. But, while there are various works that have conceptualized and operationalized ORQ as a rich and multi-dimensional construct, other studies which consider ORQ as (usually mediating) component of their theoretical models make hardly use of those works but often use less rich constructs. The research on hand attempts bridging the gap between those two groups of works. A multi-dimensional ORQ construct is used to evaluate the relative importance of different ORQ dimensions, such as commitment, trust, etc., in regard to different dimensions of outsourcing success (overall satisfaction, goal achievement, service quality). For example, while many studies use trust as proxy for ORQ, our study shows that, depending on the outcome variable, other ORQ dimensions might be more relevant and should be used instead or additionally. Thus, the main contribution is identifying those ORQ dimensions which are most relevant regarding different outsourcing success variables. Future studies on outsourcing success factors will have a better ground to argue for or against using certain ORQ dimensions in their studies. Moreover, the study sensitizes managers for different distinct ORQ dimensions and their importance for a successful outsourcing relationship.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Analyzing and managing the impact of cultural behaviour patterns on social capital in multinational IT project teams - A case study approach
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (4:3), p.137-151 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
This paper contributes to a better understanding and to mitigate negative consequences of cultural diversity in multinational IT project teams. Our research explores how culture-specific behaviours impact social capital among team members and how firms can manage the strains. In the existing IS culture literature, culture-specific behaviours are - if at all - traced back to single culture dimensions. In contrast, the approach proposed in this article goes one step further suggesting that it is necessary to combine several culture dimensions to better understand a certain culture-specific behaviour and consequently be able to better manage resulting relationship problems in multinational settings. Conducting exploratory case studies in six multinational IT projects, two exemplary cultural behaviour patterns (face maintenance in India and post-communism in the Czech Republic) are identified, and management actions to avoid project performance problems are derived. The results contribute to a better understanding and management of the negative impact of culturespecific behaviours in IT project teams and corroborate that research based on culture dimensions, such as those conceptualized by Hofstede or House et al., is valuable for understanding multi-country IS projects. The findings in particular suggest that aggregating these dimensions to cultural behaviour patterns improves their explanatory power and consequently the management's capability to mitigate the negative consequences of cultural diversity.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Auswirkungen kulturspezifischer Verhaltensmuster auf das Sozialkapital in multinationalen IT-Projektteams - Ein Fallstudienansatz
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (54:3), p.135-151 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Die vorliegende Forschungsarbeit hilft, negative Auswirkungen kultureller Unterschiede in multikulturellen IT-Projektteams besser verstehen und mittels geeigneter Managementmaßnahmen adressieren zu können. Es wird untersucht, wie sich kulturspezifische Verhaltensweisen auf das Sozialkapital multikultureller Teams auswirken und wie ein Unternehmen dadurch entstehende Spannungen besser bewältigen kann. Die bestehende Literatur, die sich mit den kulturellen Auswirkungen im Kontext von Informationssystemen beschäftigt, führt kulturspezifische Verhaltensweisen - wenn überhaupt - nur auf einzelne Kulturdimensionen zurück. Der in dieser Arbeit vorgeschlagene Ansatz geht dagegen einen Schritt weiter. Wir argumentieren, dass eine Kombination und Aggregation mehrerer Kulturdimensionen zu so genannten kulturellen Verhaltensmustern notwendig ist, um ein bestimmtes kulturspezifisches Verhalten besser verstehen und die sich daraus ergebenden Beziehungsprobleme in multikulturellen Szenarien in der Folge besser nachvollziehen und bewältigen zu können. Auf Basis von Fallstudien in sechs länderübergreifenden IT-Projekten werden zwei beispielhafte kulturspezifische Verhaltensmuster betrachtet (Gesichtswahrung in Indien und Post-Kommunismus in Tschechien). Zudem werden geeignete Managementmaßnahmen abgeleitet, die zur Vermeidung der sich in den Projekten ergebenden Probleme beitragen. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse fördern ein besseres Verständnis sowie das Management negativer Auswirkungen kulturspezifischen Verhaltens in IT-Projektteams und bestätigen, dass Forschung auf Basis bewährter Kulturdimensionen hierfür einen wichtigen Beitrag liefern kann.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Do Service-Oriented IT Architectures facilitate Business Process Outsourcing? A Study in the German Service Industry
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 77-108 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
How does a firm's IT architecture affect its potential to outsource business processes? As Information Technology (IT) has become many firms' essential operational infrastructure or "backbone", we are interested in scrutinizing to what extent the kind of IT architecture affects a firm's boundaries or the plasticity of its boundaries. Focusing on the particular concept of service-oriented architectures (SOA), we concretely ask: How does SOA affect business process outsourcing potentials? Since SOA is widely expected to modularize the IT implementation of business processes, it should increase business process outsourcing (BPO) in terms of buying in the provision of single business functionalities. We develop and empirically evaluate a theoretical model that conceptualizes the relationship between SOA and BPO. Questionnaire data from 115 firms give first evidence that SOA facilitates BPO. By increasing IT modularity, SOA supports BPO by increasing sourcing flexibility and, in particular, operational benefits, while at the same time lowering financial risks and strategic risks, such as lock-in. Overall, however, firms see SOA-based BPO mainly in an operational context with low hidden costs and little strategic benefits.

Laumer, S., Blinn, N., and Eckhardt, A. (2012)
Opening the Black Box of Outsourcing Knowledge Intensive Business Processes - A Longitudinal Case Study of Outsourcing Recruiting Activities
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
Knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) play an increasing role in business and economics as they serve as service providers for organizations outsourcing their knowledge intensive business processes (KIBP). Our literature analysis shows that KIBP as outsourcing objects remain considered as "black boxes". Based on the assumptions of the Resource Based View of the Firm, we shed light into the black box. Within a longitudinal case study, we present the motivation of a company outsourcing its recruitment activities since 2003 and the lessons learnt derived from the project during the last eight years opening the black box of outsourcing KIBP. Human Resources (HR) belongs to the back office function of organizations and recruitment in particular is considered to be a KIBP. The results of the case study indicate that business process standardization, identifying knowledge intensive sub-processes that provide value to the process outcomes and defining explicit service levels are key success factors for KIBP outsourcing. In addition, the results show that outsourcing KIBP can be beneficial for organizations and can results in better process determinants in terms of cost, time and quality.

2011

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and Reiss, Z. (2011)
Managing the Impact of Differences in National Culture on Social Capital in Multinational IT Project Teams - A German Perspective
In: Heinzl, A., Buxmann, P., Wendt, O., and Weitzel, T. (eds.): Theory-Guided Modeling and Empiricism in Information Systems Research, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg, 187-206. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Theory-Guided-Modeling-Empiricism-Information-Research/dp/3790827800/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1317916027&sr=8-1

Schlosser, F. and Wagner, H. (2011)
Applying Importance-Performance Analysis to IT Outsourcing: A Survey among Financial Institutions
Proceedings of the 15th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Brisbane, Australia

View Abstract
What is the importance of specific control and contractual mechanisms for IT outsourcing relationship quality and outsourcing success? Employing a survey among financial institutions and applying Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) known from marketing research, we analyse the relative importance of Service Level Agreements, control and contractual mechanisms for relationship quality and outsourcing success. Results show that, consistent with prior research, IT outsourcing relationship quality is positively related to outsourcing success. Extending prior research we show that outsourcing contract quality in general is most important for relationship quality, followed by control mechanisms and the characteristics of Service Level Agreements. We contribute to theory by revealing the differential importance of specific control and contractual factors for relationship quality and outsourcing success. Furthermore, we contribute to outsourcing practice by demonstrating the importance of specific measures in an IT outsourcing context and thus deliver direction for outsourcing management.

Laumer, S. and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Outsourcing im HRM: Die "Make or Buy"-Entscheidung
Personal Manager - Zeitschrift für Human Resources (4), 46-49

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and Reiss, Z. (2011)
Managing the Impact of Differences in National Culture on Social Capital in Multinational IT Project Teams - A German Perspective
Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, Finland

View Abstract
How can management handle relationship problems arising from cultural differences in multinational IT project teams? This paper uses a social capital lens to better understand the negative impact of cultural differences in IT project teams. In contrast to many previous works we do not consider cultural differences as a whole but explore the role of the different national culture dimensions. This allows for a more detailed view on cultural differences in a team context and thus contributes to a better understanding about which dimensions of national culture drive relationship problems and which management measures can help to dampen the negative effects. Based on several exploratory cases (6 multinational IT projects in 4 companies, headquartered in Germany), the authors identify three patterns showing typical problems in team social relationships which arise from differences in particular dimensions of national culture. Pattern-specific as well as general management measures, employed to address the culture-driven negative effects, are identified as well.

Schroiff, A., Beimborn, D., and Brix, A. (2011)
The Role of Interaction Structures for Client Satisfaction in Application Service Provision Relationships
Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, Finland

View Abstract
This paper presents an embedded exploratory case study of an application service provider's (ASP) client relationships. We focus on the relationship between the vendor and the clients in the ongoing business, which we analyzed based on interviews with client representatives, a pre-interview questionnaire assessing goal achievement, service quality, and relationship quality, and an identification of the real-life social network structure between vendor and client staff (not to be confused with online social networks). We identified two categories of clients fundamentally differing in their expectations for ASP support, which influences the formation of the social network structure between both firms. We found that ASPs should be aware of client differences and differentiate their support services accordingly in order to satisfy their clients in the long run. As main contribution, we extend the Expectation Confirmation Theory by adding a social network-theoretic argument explaining why disconfirmation does not necessarily reduce satisfaction in B2B relationships.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Schlosser, F. (2011)
The Role of SOA for BPO Intention - Proposing a Research Model
In: Raj Sharman, H. Raghav Rao, T. S. Raghu (Eds.): Exploring the Grand Challenges for Next Generation E-Business, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer, Berlin, 122-136

View Abstract
How does the availability of an SOA within a firm affect the potential of and intention for outsourcing business activities? Since one of the promises of SOA is to modularize the IT representation of business processes, it should facilitate business process outsourcing in terms of buying the provision of single business functionalities. In this paper, we develop a conceptual research model that theorizes the relationship between SOA and BPO intention.

2010

Schroiff, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Role of Social Network Structures in Outsourced Projects
Proceedings of the 2010 International Research Workshop on Information Technology Project Management (IRWITPM) (Pre-ICIS), St. Louis (MO)

View Abstract
IT management increasingly involves teams dispersed throughout a globalized world in internal as well as outsourced projects. In this work, we focus on the latter and analyze the impact of social network structures between vendor and client team members on project success. We present the findings of a comprehensive literature analysis and give an outlook on the ongoing empirical investigation. The goal is to propose a model linking structural properties of social networks to dimensions of success of outsourced IT projects. We base this model on indications found in prior research and the results of explorative case studies in outsourcing arrangements. Our findings so far show that the network density at the client-vendor interface and the multiplexity of ties are the salient, but not sole, network properties for which existing research implies an influence on success of outsourced IT projects. Case studies will reveal how and why these and other social network properties have an impact on project success.

Schroiff, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Structuring the Structure in Outsourcing Research - A Social Network Perspective on Outsourcing Relationship Management
Proceedings of the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Lima, Peru

View Abstract
To what extent are structural assumptions veiled in extant outsourcing research? In this paper we suggest a unified view on social ties between individuals in outsourcing relationships. In a comprehensive literature analysis of outsourcing research since 2001, we identified structural assumptions and categorize them based on social network measures. Our analysis uncovers two salient patterns: 1) The gatekeeper vs. high density trade-off in interaction between client and vendor employees, and 2) the question whether the strength of ties between individuals can be too high for a professional outsourcing relationship. We present these patterns and other social network structures to formalize assumptions mostly not explicated yet considered important in existing outsourcing research. Based on our results, further research should analyze the impact of these patterns of social structure on outsourcing success.

Schlosser, F., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Role of Internal Business/IT Alignment and IT Governance for Service Quality in IT Outsourcing Arrangements
Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., Kuznetsova, E., and Moos, B. (2010)
The Impact of Cultural Differences on IT Nearshoring Risks from a German Perspective
Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
Which nearshoring risks arise from cultural differences between German outsourcers and IT providers located in the nearshore environment? This paper focuses on the domain of IT nearshoring which is quite sparsely researched. Based on exploratory expert interviews from the IT service industry in six typical nearshoring countries from a German perspective (Bulgaria, Russia, Serbia, Lebanon, Tunisia, Turkey), we analyze which and how cultural differences influence typical outsourcing risks. We develop a causal model which derives outsourcing risk factors (such as insufficient formal communication, insufficient interaction, emotionally laden communication, and insufficiently open communication) from different cultural dimensions and links them to traditional outsourcing risk dimensions.

2009

Beimborn, D., Blumenberg, S., König, W., Martin, S., Moos, B., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Erfolgreiche Gestaltung partnerschaftlicher Outsourcingbeziehungen: Relationale Faktoren im Outsourcingmanagement der 1.000 größten Banken in Deutschland
Books on Demand, Norderstedt (ISBN 978-3-8391-2901-2). Online unter: http://www.bod.de/index.php?id=296&objk_id=286442

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Schlosser, F. (2009)
The Role of SOA for BPO Intention - Proposing a Research Model
Proceedings of the Workshop on eBusiness (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Phoenix (AZ)

View Abstract
How does the availability of an SOA within a firm affect the potential of and intention for outsourcing business activities? Since one of the promises of SOA is to modularize the IT representation of business processes, it should facilitate business process outsourcing in terms of buying the provision of single business functionalities. In this paper, we develop a conceptual research model that theorizes the relationship between SOA and BPO intention.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Kuznetsova, E. (2009)
Cultural Differences between Client and Vendor in IT Nearshoring Relationships and their Impact on IT Nearshoring Risks - A Research in Progress
Proceedings of the 17th SIG-CCRIS Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Phoenix (AZ)
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
This paper focuses on the domain of IT nearshoring which is quite sparsely researched compared with IT offshoring or IT outsourcing in general. We conducted eleven exploratory expert interviews from the IT service industry in six typical nearshoring countries from a German perspective (Bulgaria, Russia, Serbia, Lebanon, Tunisia, Turkey) and in a German consulting firm being specialized in advising German client companies that intend to outsource IT related activities to vendors in nearby countries. Based on these interviews, we analyze which and how cultural differences between client and vendor influence typical outsourcing risks. We develop a causal model which derives outsourcing risk factors (such as insufficient communication, management, and cooperation) from different dimensions of national culture and links them to traditional outsourcing risk dimensions. This is a research in progress as more interviews, especially on the client side, will follow.

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2009)
The Impact of Process Standardization on Business Process Outsourcing Success
In: Willcocks, L., Lacity, M. (eds.): Outsourcing Information Systems, Sage Publications, 142-164. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Outsourcing-Information-Systems-Business-Management/dp/1848604459/

Wüllenweber, K., König, W., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
The Impact of Process Standardization on Business Process Outsourcing Success
In: R. Hirschheim, A. Heinzl, J. Dibbern (eds.): Information Systems Outsourcing: Enduring Themes, Global Challenges, and Process Opportunities, Springer, Heidelberg, 527-548

Wagner, H., Blumenberg, S., and Beimborn, D. (2009)
Knowledge Transfer Processes in IT Outsourcing Relationships and their Impact on Shared Knowledge and Outsourcing Performance
International Journal of Information Management (29:5), p. 342-352 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
What is the impact of specific knowledge-transfer processes on the level of shared knowledge and, in turn, on outsourcing performance in outsourcing relationships? Drawing on a series of case studies covering IT providers and banks, we investigate several applied knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit or tacit knowledge between outsourcing banks and their providers. We examine the differential influence of various types of knowledge transfer on shared knowledge between the parties and on the resulting outsourcing performance. Results depict the differential impact of various knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit, or tacit knowledge, respectively, on the development of shared knowledge. Interestingly, the combination of both knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit knowledge and those dedicated to the transfer of tacit knowledge proves to be most effective. Furthermore the results indicate that high levels of shared knowledge positively influence outsourcing performance. In addition to previous literature, we found transfer processes for explicit knowledge in an outsourcing context to consist of two dimensions: The content dimension, primarily focused on in literature, and the sender-receiver dimension of transfer processes which are rarely addressed in outsourcing literature. The content dimension embraces mechanisms such as trainings, SLAs and standards that define how content has to be interpreted, whereas the sender-receiver dimension of transfer processes of explicit knowledge defines explicit, documented interaction structures between parties.

Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Examining the Relationship Between Trust and Control in IT Outsourcing Relationships
Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Verona, Italy

View Abstract
What is the role of control in maintaining trust in outsourcing relationships? Although the literature is quite rich on conceptualizing the relationship between control and trust in inter-organizational relationships, there exist quite sparse quantitative works which help to evaluate the models developed. In this paper, we analyze data from 156 IT outsourcing relationships of German banks in order to get insights into the actual relationships between different modes of control and the level of relational trust in these relationships. Additionally, we examine the role of service quality (measured in terms of reliability and responsiveness) in this context. The results show that trust is positively related with most modes of control, and that there is indicative evidence that control supports trust in high-service quality situations while it leads to a reduction of trust in relationships suffering from bad service quality (cycle of trust vs. distrust).

Beimborn, D., Moos, B., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
The Role of Client-internal Social Linkages for Outsourcing Success - An SNA Approach
Proceedings of the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Francisco (CA)

View Abstract
What is the role of a firm's internal social relations between business departments and IT unit for the success of its IT outsourcing relationship? In this paper, we propose that the relationship between business and IT of a firm is crucial for achieving effective outsourcing management and for enabling the vendor to deliver the services as demanded. Since the business side of the client firm represents the users of the information systems but the IT unit represents the interface to the outsourcing vendor firm, interaction between both units is proposed to be required for maintaining a good outsourcing relationship. Based on a survey in the German Banking Industry and by adopting a Social Network Analysis Approach which captures the interaction structure within the client firm and thus represents an innovative scale to outsourcing research, we show that tight social linkages within the client firm lead to higher service quality achieved by the vendor firm.

Blumenberg, S., Beimborn, D., Martin, S., Brodnik, B., Gunne, C., and Wendt, S. (2009)
Determinants of Outsourcing Success in the Financial Industry: The Impact of Importance
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

2008

Beimborn, D., Blumenberg, S., Brodnik, B., Gunne, C., Weitzel, T., and Wendt, S. (2008)
Gestaltung partnerschaftlicher Outsourcingbeziehungen - Eine Fallstudienserie zur Beziehungsqualität
Research Report, ibidem, Stuttgart. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Gestaltung-partnerschaftlicher-Outsourcingbeziehungen-Beziehungsqualit%C3%A4t-Finanzdienstleistern/dp/3898219267

Beimborn, D. (2008)
Cooperative Sourcing: Simulation Studies and Empirical Data on Outsourcing Coalitions in the Banking Industry
Gabler, Wiesbaden. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Cooperative-Sourcing-Simulation-Outsourcing-Coalitions/dp/383500946X/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1318097296&sr=8-1

König, W. and Beimborn, D. (2008)
Sourcing-Trends im KMU-Geschäft der deutschen Banken
Kaib, B. (ed.): Outsourcing in Banken. Gabler, Wiesbaden, 183-210

Martin, S., Wagner, H., and Beimborn, D. (2008)
Process Documentation, Operational Alignment, and Flexibility in IT Outsourcing Relationships: A Knowledge-Based Perspective
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Paris, France

Beimborn, D. and Joachim, N. (2008)
How to Achieve Business Value of SOA? - Investigating the Relationships between SOA, IT Business Alignment and Sourcing Strategies
Proceedings of the 2008 Special Interest Group on Services (SIGSVC) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Paris, France

View Abstract
Although many firms have started or accomplished to migrate their IT infrastructure towards a ser-vice-oriented architecture (SOA), as flexible and adaptive fundament of their business applications, there is still a gap answering one of the most essential questions associated with this new architecture para-digm: What is the business value of SOA and how can we influence it?

Beimborn, D., Hirschheim, R., Schlosser, F., Schwarz, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Comparing the Operational Integration of a Core Information System in Insourcing and Outsourcing Firms
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto (ON), Canada

Bäuerlein, M., Schlosser, J., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Business Process Outsourcing: Wissenslücken schließen
Bankmagazin 01/08, S. 46-47

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
The impact of process standardization on business process outsourcing success
Information Systems Frontiers (10:2), p. 211-224 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
What is the impact of business process standardization on BPO success? This paper argues that there is a direct impact of process standardization on BPO success, due to production cost economies, and also an indirect effect via improved contrac-tual and relational governance resulting from better monitoring opportunities and facilitated communication and coordination. This threefold impact of standardization on BPO success is empirically confirmed using data from 335 BPO ventures in 215 German banks.

Martin, S., Beimborn, D., Parikh, M., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Organizational Readiness for Business Process Outsourcing: A Model of Determinants and Impact on Outsourcing Success
Proceedings of the 41th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

Blumenberg, S., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2008)
Determinants of IT Outsourcing Relationships: A Conceptual Model
Proceedings of the 41th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
How can relationship quality in outsourcing partnerships be achieved, sustained, and improved? In this paper we present a conceptual model that focuses on the identification of the relevant determinants for a successful IT outsourcing relationship as well as on the operationalization IT outsourcing relationship quality. We contribute to existing relationship literature by thoroughly examining existing constructs and, if applicable, spliting and redistributing them. We also consider additional relationship quality dimensions and determinants. The derived eleven dimensions and fifteen determinants are empirically validated in a subsequent three step empirical approach providing a much more detailed and throroughly structured relationship quality model which will eventually help practitioners in improving their crossorganizational IT-business relationships.

2007

Wüllenweber, K., Janisch, A., Monsport, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2007)
Governance im Business Process Outsourcing
Books on Demand, Norderstedt (ISBN: 978-3-8370-0851-7)

Wüllenweber, K., Janisch, A., Monsport, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2007)
Steuerung von Outsourcing-Projekten
Research Report, E-Finance Lab, Frankfurt am Main

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Business Process Outsourcing: The Challenge of Process Standardization
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Outsourcing of Information Services (ICOIS), Heidelberg

Martin, S. and Beimborn, D. (2007)
Modeling the Impact of IT Business Alignment on Business Process Outsourcing Success
Proceedings of the 2007 Special Interest Group on the Adoption and Diffusion of IT - European Diffusion Interst Group in Information Technology (Pre-ECIS Workshop), St. Gallen, Switzerland

Beimborn, D. and Blumenberg, S. (2007)
How to Measure Relationships - Merging Alignment and Outsourcing Research towards a Unified Relationship Quality Construct
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)

View Abstract
The literature has shown that relationship management between and within different entities is crucial in manifold contexts. The prominent IS research strands of IT business alignment and outsourcing relationships tackle this topic from different perspectives. We argue that there are strong overlaps of these concepts and claim for a consolidation of both research strands. We match both research stream´s measurement constructs, show the overlap as well as the remainder and propose a unified model. This model consists of six dimensions and allows for a combined measurement of relationships between business and IT units within as well as across organizational boundaries.

Wüllenweber, K. and Weitzel, T. (2007)
An empirical exploration of how process standardization reduces outsourcing risk
Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

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Are standardized business processes less risky to outsource? Despite the importance of both areas, neither the outsourcing nor standardization literature has so far offered a conclusive picture of the value of standards to outsourcing. We aim to provide an exploratory first step by suggesting that process standards have a positive impact on business process outsourcing (BPO) risk. Theoretically drawing from perceived risk theory and the theory of reasoned action we develop a model of BPO risk and empirically show that indeed risk perception is higher for less standardized processes. Using data from 126 German banks, it turns out that financial and performance risks of BPO significantly differ between high- and low-standardized processes and are consistently higher for less standardized processes. While this work is very exploratory and the findings are quite preliminary, they are very encouraging as they indicate promising further research into the value of standards for business processes and outsourcing.

2006

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
The Impact of Outsourcing on IT Business Alignment and IT Flexibility: A Survey in the German Banking Industry
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

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The ability to outsource IT has been suggested as a major driver of IT productivity. At the same time, the literature on the business value of IT suggests that IT business alignment and IT flexibility are important drivers for the performance of IT. But what is, then, the impact of outsourcing on these key value drivers? In this paper, we empirically show that firms with internal IT exhibit significantly better IT business alignment and IT flexibility.

Wüllenweber, K., Gewald, H., Franke, J., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2006)
Business Process Outsourcing: Eine Nutzen- und Risikoanalyse in der deutschen Bankenbranche
Books on Demand, Norderstedt

Franke, J. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Strategisches Sourcing im KMU-Kreditgeschäft
Zeitschrift für das gesamte Kreditwesen, Fritz Knapp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main

Gewald, H., Wüllenweber, K., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
The Influence of Perceived Risks on Banking Managers' Intention to Outsource Business Processes - A Study of the German Banking and Finance Industry
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research (7:2), p. 78-96 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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Information Technology (IT) is a key productive factor in the banking and finance industry (BFI) as almost the entire production and delivery of services can in principle be digitized. Driven by cost pressure and new competitors, outsourcing IT together with the relevant business processes is a promising way to focus on core competencies and to restructure the corporate value chain. While there is a rich literature on the risks and benefits of IT outsourcing, little is known about the next step of business process outsourcing (BPO) and especially the associated risks. Our main hypothesis is that the perceived risks associated with BPO strongly influence the intention of managers to outsource business processes. Based on an empirical survey of BFI managers covering 90% of the cumulated German BFI balance sheet, it is shown that perceived risk does indeed have a significant impact on managers' attitudes towards BPO and that these attitudes strongly influence the outsourcing decision. Financial risks turn out to be a major risk facet, exerting pressure on banks which decide solely in terms of potential cost savings. In addition, the high importance of performance risk requires banks to invest in sophisticated vendor management.

Beimborn, D. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Game Theoretical Analysis of Cooperative Sourcing Scenarios
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

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A possible trend in outsourcing, cooperative sourcing is the merging of similar processes by several firms. For example, several banks could merge their payments processes and the underlying IT to jointly realize economies of scale. But what are conditions of stable outsourcing coalitions? And how to allocate costs within the outsourcing value web? In this paper we present a micro economic model for analyzing cooperative sourcing decisions. Using a game-theoretical equilibrium analysis, distribution rules of cooperative sourcing benefits are evaluated and necessary condition for stable sourcing cooperations are identified. We formally prove that only a proportional allocation of costs will regularly lead to stable coalitions. Still, a game theoretic experiment indicates that deciders not knowing about the results are more likely to choose inefficient allocations leading to instable sourcing networks.

Beimborn, D. (2006)
A Model for Simulation Analyses of Cooperative Business Sourcing in the Banking Industry
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai

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What will be efficient sourcing constellations in the competitive banking market which force banks to optimize their processes and to change organizational structures? This paper presents a model for investigating causes and effects of Cooperative Sourcing in the banking industry. Cooperative Sourcing means merging of similar processes by several firms, such as several banks merge their credit handling as well as the underlying IT, to achieve economies of scale. The model is able to capture these IS-based factors and to analyze the efficiency of sourcing decisions and rsulting market constellations.Due to the complexity of the involved factors, a simulation approach is used for applying the model. Fed with appropriate data the model could support BPO decisions based on analytical analyses as well as on simulation-based compound investigations.

2005

Beimborn, D. (2005)
A simulative analysis of causes and effects of cooperative business process outsourcing in the banking industry
Proceedings of the IRMA International Conference, Doctoral Symposium, San Diego (CA)

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Role of Experience for Outsourcing Evaluation
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (47:6), p. 431-440 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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How can outsourcing be used to improve financial processes and what role does managers' experience with outsourcing play for outsourcing decisions? An empirical survey with CFOs of Germany's Fortune 1,000 firms (non-banks) reveals that (1) there are substantial efficiency potentials in the financial chain of many firms, (2) outsourcing these secondary processes is still quite rare, and (3) prior outsourcing experience of managers has a strong impact on the evaluation of the competencies of external service providers: an experienced manager is more likely to appreciate the provider's skills, someone without outsourcing experience presumes the higher competencies inhouse.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Drivers and Inhibitors for Outsourcing Financial Processes - A Comparative Survey of Economies of Scale, Scope, and Skill
Proceedings of the 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Omaha (NE)

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Economies of scale, scope, and skill are known to be major drivers or inhibitors for outsourcing business processes. This paper presents a comparative analysis of economies of scale, scope, and skill achievable by outsourcing financial processes in non-banks and banks based on two empirical studies conducted with Fortune 1,000 non-banks and Fortune 500 banks in Germany. It can be shown that industrialization tendencies within the credit business in banks are in parts broader sophisticated than within financial processes of other industries. Credit process managers estimate economies of scale and skill achievable by outsourcing to be higher than chief financial officers do. Furthermore, economies of scope, which inhibit selective sourcing, are evaluated as being less problematic. As a result, the credit process managers' disposition to outsource (parts of) primary financial processes in banks is higher compared to the CFOs' attendance to outsource parts of their secondary financial processes in non-banks. In accordance with common knowledge, economies of scale and skill are identified as drivers for outsourcing business processes while economies of scope represent an inhibitor. In contrast to common knowledge, our studies suggest German banks being on the way to industrialization and modularization.

König, W., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Sourcing von Finanzprozessen - Ein Modell zur simultanen Bewertung von Economies of Scale und Scope
Proceedings of the 7. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Bamberg

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Während viele Unternehmen Fortschritte in der IuK-Technologie zur Automatisierung ihrer primären Prozesse, zu einer internen und externen Vernetzung und letztlich zur Neuaufteilung und Optimierung der gesamten Wertschöpfungskette genutzt haben, wurden Sekundärprozesse selten als eigener Optimierungsgegenstand betrachtet. In einer empirischen Studie zu sekundären Finanzprozessen in den 1.000 größten deutschen Unternehmen (ohne Banken und Versicherungen) wird gezeigt, dass vor einer Outsourcing-Entscheidung kulturelle Hürden der Entscheider zu überwinden sind. Es zeigt sich insbesondere, dass die individuelle Outsourcing-Erfahrung der entscheidenden Manager von Bedeutung ist und dass Economies of Scale und Scope getrennt betrachtet und damit mögliche Trade-offs häufig ignoriert werden. Zur Erweiterung der reinen Outsourcing-Entscheidung im Hinblick auf viel versprechende Modelle des kooperativen Outsourcing wird untersucht, wer geeignete Partner für eine selektive Auslagerung von Teilprozessen durch eine Kreuzung der eigenen Wertschöpfungskette mit derjenigen des Partners (Value Chain Crossing) sein können. Aufbauend auf diesen empirischen Ergebnissen wird ein Simulationsmodell vorgestellt, welches insbesondere die simultane Betrachtung verschiedener Einflussfaktoren der Outsourcing-Entscheidung erlaubt.

2004

Skiera, B., König, W., Gensler, S., Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., Blumenberg, S., Franke, J., and Pfaff, D. (2004)
Financial Chain Management - Prozessanalyse, Effizienzpotenziale und Outsourcing
Books on Demand, Norderstedt. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Financial-Chain-Management-Prozessanalyse-Effizienzpotenziale/dp/3833413409

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Einer Umfrage unter den Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland (ohne Banken) zufolge verbrauchen die Finanzprozesse in vielen Unternehmen ein Viertel der IT-Bufgets und bieten als typischer Sekundärprozess erhebliches Optimierungspotenzial. Die Autoren entwickeln eine empirisch fundierte generische Financial Chain und identifizieren Ansatzpunkte für Verbesserungen durch ein systematisches Financial Chain Management. Tatsächlich sind die Verbesseungspotenziale durch interne und externe Vernetzung erheblich. So wickeln zwei Drittel der Unternehmen den Versand ihrer bis zu 4 Millionen Rechnungen jeden Monat über die Post ab. Dabei liegen die Kosten je Rechnung bei durchschnittlich 15,5 EUR, im Gegensatz zu 2 EUR beim elektronischen Rechnungsversand. Die empirische Untersuchung sowie Fallstudien zeigen Verbesserungspotenziale in der Financial Chain, Einsparungen durch Shared Service Factories und Outsourcing, Wege zu einem Straight Through Processing sowie Ansätze zur Reduktion der Rechnungs- und Reklamationskosten.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and Franke, J. (2004)
Outsourcing the Financial Chain: an Empirical Analysis of Sourcing and Partnering Potentials
Proceedings of the 10th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), New York (NY)
Best Paper Award/Best Outsourcing Paper

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While many firms have used advancement in information and communication technology to optimize their supply chain and primary processes, there is still a substantial efficiency potential associated with financial processes. In this paper, a conceptual framework for a systematic financial chain management is developed. Based on this, an empirical survey with the Fortune 1,000 enterprises of Germany shows that while outsourcing of the financial chain is still quite rare it can be successfully used to focus on core competencies. A main finding is that CFOs tend to systematically overestimate the quality of their financial processes and especially the firm's competencies compared to external experts. This is an important cultural barrier to a value redesign that could offer substantial efficiency improvements.

Lammers, M., L, N., and Weitzel, T. (2004)
Strategic Sourcing in Banking - A Framework
Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Turku, Finnland

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The banking landscape in Europe and Germany has a polypolistic market structure with an average vertical range of integration of 80%, implying high process redundancies. Accumulating processes for standardized products is one way to achieve efficiency improvements. "Smart sourcing" can change the production mix of banks lead to a concentration of processes. A challenge is the lack of consistent frameworks for the banking industry to systematically support the sourcing decision process. In this paper, drawing on the resource based view and transaction cost economics it is shown that, in addition to a make or buy decision, co-operation between competitors should be included into a sourcing analysis as the third alternative. To support the decision on making, buying or sharing an activity, a quantitative analysis of each activity of the banking value chain is necessary. We propose an analysis framework based on a generic banking value chain. Since the recent literature mostly focuses only on the outsourcers' case, a formalized model is developed to consider both the objective function of the out- and the insourcer. Since the market might restrict sourcing options, as there may be no providers of relevant activities, it can be shown that ”sharing“ as part of a co-opetition concept instead of buy or make can be a way to break up the value chain. The framework thus supports decision makers to approach an optimal degree of vertical integration for both market sides.