Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
User Personality and Resistance to Mandatory Information Systems in Organizations: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Test of Dispositional Resistance to Change
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 67-82, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2015.17 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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This research is driven by the assumption made in several user resistance studies that employees are generally resistant to change. It investigates the extent to which employees' resistance to IT-induced change is caused by individuals' predisposition to resist change. We develop a model of user resistance that assumes the influence of dispositional resistance to change on perceptual resistance to change, perceived ease of use, and usefulness, which in turn influence user resistance behavior. Using an empirical study of 106 HR employees forced to use a new human resources information system, the analysis reveals that 17.0 to 22.1 percent of the variance in perceived ease of use, usefulness, and perceptual resistance to change can be explained by the dispositional inclination to change initiatives. The four dimensions of dispositional resistance to change - routine seeking, emotional reaction, short-term focus and cognitive rigidity - have an even stronger effect than other common individual variables, such as age, gender, or working experiences. We conclude that dispositional resistance to change is an example of an individual difference that is instrumental in explaining a large proportion of the variance in beliefs about and user resistance to mandatory IS in organizations, which has implications for theory, practice, and future research.


Laumer, S. and Eckhardt, A. (2010)
The Internet as Additional Secondary Source - First empirical Results for Differentiating the Impact of Secondary Sources on the Intention to use IT
Proceedings of the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Lima, Peru
(Research in Progress)

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The research about adoption decisions in a household context brought the factor of secondary sources as part of a normative beliefs construct to explain an individual's behavioral intention. The secondary sources included mass media as TV, radio and newspapers but not the largest global information medium, the internet. With billions of information provided by the internet in every minute it seems to be very likely that this factor depicts an important determinant for an individual's IT adoption decision as well. So for this reason the aim of our paper is to propose a research model to integrate the explicit influence of the mass medium internet on an individual's IT adoption decision and to discuss the relationship and interplay between attitude towards an information system, intention to use an information system and the secondary source "Internet". Furthermore a research description how the influence can be validated is provided and first empirical results are presented.

Laumer, S. (2010)
Why do People Reject Information Systems? - An Investigation of IT Resistance and Personality
Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Doctoral Consortium, Pretoria, South Africa

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2010)
Why do they resist? - An empirical analysis of an individual's personality trait resistance regarding the adoption of new information systems
Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Pretoria, South Africa

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Trunk, N. (2010)
Do as your parents say? - Analyzing IT adoption influencing factors for full and under age applicants
Information Systems Frontiers (12:2), p. 169-183 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)


Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., Hoberg, P., and Schlosser, F. (2009)
Examining the Organizational Decision to Adopt Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) - Development of a Research Model
Proceedings of the 2009 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Phoenix (AZ)

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What are the determinants of an organization's decision to adopt Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)? Although the paradigms of service orientation and SOA have become quite omnipresent in the IS literature, research is still lacking to provide a comprehensive view upon drivers and inhibitors of the organizational decision to adopt SOA. Based on the mature strand of adoption research, this paper develops a conceptual model in order to increase the understanding of the determinants influencing this decision. Thereby, the drivers and inhibitors are distinguished in organization-specific and innovation-specific factors. The organization-specific factors cover two aspects: (1) the compatibility of technology and organization (i.e., SOA expertise of the employees, management support for SOA, IT/ Business alignment, degree of process documentation) and (2) management fad and fashion. The innovation-specific factors cover the perceived benefits, perceived complexity, and standardization of available technologies related to SOA. Beside developing this theoretical model for laying the foundation for future empirical research, a further contribution of this paper is the development of a comprehensive measurement model for SOA adoption, which differentiates between the IT and the enterprise layer.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
Towards an Understanding of an Individual's Resistance to Use an IS - Empirical Examinations and Directions for Future Research
Proceedings of the 2009 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Phoenix (AZ)

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Who influences whom? - Analyzing workplace referents' social influence on IT adoption and non-adoption
Journal of Information Technology (14.1), p. 11-24 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

von Stetten, A. and Beimborn, D. (2009)
Analyzing National Differences in IT Adoption between Culturally Close Countries - A Conceptual Model
Proceedings of the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Francisco (CA)

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Cross-cultural research in IT adoption has so far most often concentrated on disparities in IT adoption between countries with highly different culture profiles. Instead, we argue that there are also differences between cultural closely related countries (which, e.g., are geographically close and share the same language) which need to be understood. The question raises whether the dimensions of culture applied in prior literature to analyze IT adoption in highly distinct cultures are sufficient for explaining the differences in a close culture context as well or whether a more differentiated model of cultural dimensions has to be drawn. Based on indicative results from a three-country comparison within Central Europe, we find substantial differences in adoption drivers (Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use) which seem to be impacted by "microcultural" disparities. As a consequence, we develop a conceptual model based on human values and cross-national differences in IT adoption which will allow us to analyze and explain these differences in future research.


von Stetten, A. and Beimborn, D. (2008)
Towards an explanation of differences in IS adoption between German speaking countries: Comparing Switzerland, Austria and Germany
Proceedings of the 16th SIG-CCRIS Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Paris, France

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The way cultural values affect the adoption of information technology is an important field of research within the area of Information Systems. Up to now, much research work has been done to explain differences in IT Usage between totally different cultural regions. By contrast, in this paper we discover significant differences regarding the usage of information technology respectively the Internet in HR marketing between the German speaking and culturally rather close countries Austria, Switzerland, and Germany within a survey among the 1,000 largest companies in the particular countries. The paper in hand develops a theoretical model to analyze these differences and outlines our plans for empirical research pursuing the objective to scrutinize and explain the ascertained differences in IT Usage between the mentioned countries.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Reconsidering Subjective Norm - A Multilayer-Framework for Modeling Normative Beliefs in IT Adoption
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto, ON, Canada

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Do as your Competitors Do? - Analyzing Competitors' Influence on the Non-Adoption of Information Systems In Organizations
Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Galway, Ireland

Beck, R., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
Network effects as drivers of individual technology adoption: Analyzing adoption and diffusion of mobile communication services
Information Systems Frontiers (10:4), p. 415-429 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Beck, R. and Beimborn, D. (2008)
The Impact of Direct and Indirect Network Effects on the Diffusion of Communication Standards
Proceedings of the 41th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

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Expectations about stand-alone and network benefits determine the adoption decision of customers and hence the diffusion of standards. To increase the number of adopters of a communication standard like EDI, not only the ability to exchange messages (as a source of direct network effects), but also the provision of complementary services such as standardized master data, e.g., by establishing a central, industry-wide EDI data pool (as a source of indirect net-work effects) is important. We thus examine the differing impact of direct and indirect network effects on the adoption and diffusion of communication standards. The incorporation of both network benefits into an agent-based simulation model may help to better understand the underlying diffusion problem.


Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., König, W., and Buschbacher, J. (2007)
How to Convince People who don't Like IT to Use IT - A Case Study On eRecruiting
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)


Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2006)
Network Effects and Diffusion Theory - Extending Economic Network Analysis
Jakobs, K. (ed.): Advanced Topics in Information Technology Standards and Standardization Research, Volume 1, Hershey, PA, ISBN 159140939-X. Erhältlich unter: http://www.igi-global.com/bookstore/chapter.aspx?TitleId=4668

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2006)
A Unified Economic Model of Standard Diffusion: The Impact of Standardization Cost, Network Effects and Network Topology
Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ) Volume 30, p. 489-514 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A+)

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This paper is motivated by the following question: What drives the diffusion of a communication standard and what diffusion results can we expect? Past literature provides many instructive but mostly unrelated answers. Frequent findings are startup problems, penguin effects, and tendencies towards monopoly. But substantial problems in applying the models to concrete standardization problems reveal that the dynamics are probably more complex. Not all networks are ultimately conquered by a single standard once it has attracted a certain number of users. And not all diffusion results are either complete or no standardization. We address the question of the conditions of particular diffusion behaviors by developing a formal standardization model that captures all fragmented phenomena in a unified approach. Drawing from findings of other research we incorporate the structure of the underlying user network as an important determinant for diffusion behaviors. The approach allows us to disclose varying conditions that generate frequently observed standardization behaviors as special parameter constellations of the model. Using equilibrium analysis and computer simulations we identify a standardization gap that reveals the magnitude of available standardization gains for individuals and the network as a whole. The analysis shows that network topology and density have a strong impact on standard diffusion and that the renowned tendency towards monopoly is far less common. We also report how the model can be used to decide on corporate standardization problems.


Keim, T., Malinowski, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Bridging the Assimilation Gap: A User-Centered Approach to IT-Adoption in Corporate HR Processes
Proceedings of the 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Omaha (NE)


Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., von Westarp, F., and König, W. (2003)
Network Effects and Diffusion Theory - Extending Economic Network Analysis
International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research (IJITSR) , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

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In this paper, some of the main results of an interdisciplinary research project on standards are presented and integrated into a single framework of technology diffusion. Based on network effect theory and diffusion theory, we present an agent-based simulation model that extends the traditional economical network perspective by incorporating structural determinants of networks (centrality, topology/density) from sociology and geography and individual decision making on the part of prospective technology users under realistic informational assumptions. Based upon these models, decision behavior in terms of the selection of standards and the diffusion of technological innovations in networks can be described. The model has so far served as both, a tool for developing and evaluating network strategies in practical application like EDI networks or corporate directory service planning as well as for providing theoretical insights into standardization problems and possible solutions.