2014

Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
How Social Capital among IT and Business Units Drives Operational Alignment and IT Business Value
Journal of Management Information Systems (31:1), p. 241-272, http://www.jmis-web.org/articles/1193 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
It is widely acknowledged that IT and business resources need to be well aligned to achieve organizational goals. Yet, year after year, chief information officers (CIOs) still name business-IT alignment a key challenge for IT executives. While alignment research has matured, we still lack a sound theoretical foundation for alignment. Transcending the predominantly strategic executive level focus, we develop a model of 'operational alignment' and IT business value that combines a social perspective of IT and business linkage with a view of interaction between business and IT at non-strategic levels, such as in daily business operations involving regular staff. Drawing on social capital theory to explain how alignment affects organizational performance, we examine why common suggestions like "communicate more" are insufficient to strengthen alignment and disclose how social capital between IT and business units drives alignment and ultimately IT business value. Empirical data from 136 firms confirms the profound impact of operational business-IT alignment, composed of social capital and business understanding of IT, on IT flexibility, IT utilization, and organizational performance. The results show that social capital theory is a useful theoretical foundation for understanding how business IT alignment works. The findings suggest that operational alignment is at least as important as strategic alignment for IT service quality, that managers need to focus on operational aspects of alignment beyond communication by fostering knowledge, trust and respect, and that IT utilization and flexibility are appropriate intermediate goals for business-IT alignment governance.

2013

Zolper, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
When the river leaves its bed: analyzing deviations between planned and actual interaction structures in IT change processes
Journal of Information Technology (18:4), p. 333-353, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2013.23 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
There is ample evidence of deviations between the actual and planned interaction structures between a firm's IT department and business units. Such deviations can hinder senior managers from governing their IT organizations effectively because they do not know how work really gets done. This paper develops an explanation for why actual structures differ from planned structures. Understanding this phenomenon is indispensable for managers to govern the real organization, to uphold compliance with important standards (e.g., ITIL, COBIT), to decide whether the formal or the actual organization is more effective, and, finally, to identify management actions that support the optimal structure. To develop this understanding, we analyze the interaction structures at the interface between firms' business units and IT units in four rich cases, using data from 56 interviews and 47 questionnaires, and applying qualitative methods and social network analysis, which give us deep insights into planned and actual interaction among employees. We test two different explanations for deviations of actual from planned interaction structures and find that boundary-spanning theory provides the dominant explanation for such deviations: Inclined to span the business/IT boundary most effectively, the actors involved deviate from planned structures especially when other structures offer better boundary-spanning potential, which is influenced primarily by cross-domain knowledge. In addition, relationships also play an important role. On the positive side, relationships provide opportunities for such deviations, while on the negative side, a conflict-laden relationship might hinder deviations even if they were advantageous.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Influence of SOA Governance Mechanisms on IT Flexibility and Service Reuse
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:1), p. 86-101, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2012.10.003 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A )

View Abstract
While many firms have introduced SOA, only one in five have achieved anticipated benefits such as increased IT flexibility or reuse. Industry analysts assume that a lack of SOA governance is the main reason why SOA projects fail. Addressing the substantial research gap on SOA governance this paper theoretically and empirically investigates which SOA governance mechanisms are needed to achieve the benefits of SOA, such as increasing IT flexibility and reusing services. The proposed theoretical SOA governance model is evaluated using data from 81 SOA-using organizations. Overall, the results confirm the relevance of a variety of SOA governance mechanisms (structures, processes, and employees/relations), but at the same time, that IT infrastructure flexibility and service reuse are influenced by different mechanisms. Key governance mechanisms that show a strong effect on infrastructure flexibility are using standards, service management processes, educating employees, and IT/business communication while reuse can only be increased through service management, standards and qualification. Contrary to expectations, implementing new, dedicated decision-making bodies for SOA hampers organizations in achieving higher degrees of IT flexibility and reuse, and a firm is better off using existing IT decision-making bodies.

2012

Schlosser, F. (2012)
Mastering the Social IT/Business Alignment Challenge
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

View Abstract
The crucial role of IT/business alignment for business value of IT has been investigated for more than two decades. While both the intellectual and the social dimension of alignment received considerable attention at strategic level, only few studies have provided insights into alignment at non-strategic levels. With the intellectual dimension being quite well understood, this work focuses particularly on the social dimension of alignment, addressing aspects like shared understanding, common language, shared domain knowledge, and interaction quality between business and IT. Furthermore, there is a lack of research on how to achieve and maintain social alignment, making it difficult to develop guidelines for practice in this important area. This paper presents a multi-level construct for social alignment and adopts an IT governance perspective in order to identify specific practices and investigate their impact on social alignment. Using a qualitative approach by conducting a series of case studies, this research aims to contribute to our understanding of key IT/business alignment antecedents (or managerial actions) and how they influence social alignment.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2012)
How To Achieve Operational Business-IT Alignment: Insights From A Global Aerospace Firm
MIS Quarterly Executive (11:1), p. 25-36 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
A common challenge facing firms is how to effectively embed strategic business-IT alignment into daily routines at the operational level. Based on our findings from following an alignment project in a global aerospace industry leader for almost two years, we put forward a framework, which we call OperA, for establishing operational level business-IT alignment. This framework has three dimensions - knowledge, communication and trust, and identifies alignment paths for three strategic situations faced by firms: major planned changes, regular operations and major unplanned changes. Each path is anchored in a different dimension of the framework. The global aerospace case shows how different mechanisms used for each path improve business processes and enable successful change. The case also revealed frequent pitfalls and dependencies between the dimensions and associated mechanisms that top managers should be aware of as they strive to achieve operational business-IT alignment.

Schlosser, F., Wagner, H., and Coltman, T. (2012)
Reconsidering the Dimensions of Business-IT Alignment
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
While the literature on business-IT alignment has become increasingly mature in the past 20 years, different definitions and conceptualizations have emerged. Several dimensions like strategic, intellectual, structural, social, and cultural alignment have been developed. However, no integrated and broadly accepted categorization exists and these dimensions are non-selective and do overlap. In this paper, we critically compare and reflect the existing dimensions of alignment and synthesize what has been researched about alignment and guide future research by revealing gaps in alignment research suggesting an agenda for future research. In regard to analyzing alignment, we propose to clearly separate between the organizational level and the content of alignment, for which we suggest three distinct dimensions: (1) human dimension; (2) social dimension; (3) intellectual dimension. The result is a consolidated grid of alignment studies allowing to identify both areas with a mature and rich strand of literature and those lacking research.

Walentowitz, K. (2012)
Aligning Multiple Definitions of Alignment - A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
Business/IT alignment is an important driver of ITbusiness-value, thus, an important topic on researchers' and practitioners' agendas. Achieving alignment is a major goal of IT governance. Accordingly, many articles around alignment have been published. However, they describe a wide range of different sometimes overlapping alignment types. Yet, research depends on precise, unambiguous concepts. While previous reviews on alignment only list and describe alignment definitions, this literature-review-based research develops the Alignment Map, a structured overview of alignment types describing their relations to one another, and describes an approach to locate additional alignment definitions amongst existing ones. It is centred around the SAM whose two dimensions are complemented by a social dimension, highlighting the importance of social aspects in recent alignment literature. The Alignment Map, to my knowledge, is the first tool allowing researchers to locate their understanding of alignment amongst existing definitions, and thus promotes exchange between different alignment research streams.

2011

Walentowitz, K. and Beimborn, D. (2011)
The Social Antecedents of Business/IT Alignment - Reviewing the Role of Social Network Structure in Alignment Research
International Journal on IT/Business Alignment and Governance (IJITBAG) (2:2), p. 15-32 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
Business/IT alignment is a major source of business value generated from IT and social structures at the interface between a firm's business and IT units are of vital importance to business/IT alignment. Yet, there is a substantial gap in understanding the nature of these social structures. Based on a literature review comprising all related articles published in the AIS Senior Scholars' Basket journals between January 2000 and August 2011, this paper identifies antecedents of alignment related to social network structure. These are translated into formal SNA concepts. The identification and formalization of social network structures allow IT governance to implement social engineering mechanisms influencing the social network structure, thus improve business/IT alignment and IT value. Examples for such translated arguments are high degree centrality of CIOs vis-à-vis other executives and strong ties in terms of cross-domain knowledge between CIOs and other executives. Finally, important avenues for future research are highlighted.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Does SOA Create or Require IT/Business Collaboration? Investigating SOA's Potential to Reduce the Gap Between IT and Business
Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Shanghai, China

View Abstract
By extending the research on identifying the possible benefits of Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA), we investigate how SOA delivers its value in an organization. One perspective in the existing literature suggests that service orientation works through creating better IT/Business collaboration as the "services" concept is a shared mental model that reduces the mental gap between IT and business units. Another perspective proposes that SOA benefits require IT/Business collaboration in the first place as IT and business must closely collaborate in order to leverage SOA's potential. We develop a theoretical model to understand how service orientation and close collaboration between IT and business departments are related. An analysis using data from 122 organizations reveals that SOA does not advance - but rather requires - close collaboration between the IT and business departments (i.e., collaboration is a moderator, not mediator, between SOA and its impacts). Therefore, close IT/business collaboration is an important success factor for realizing SOA's value potential and must be established using other means.

Schlosser, F. and Wagner, H. (2011)
IT Governance Practices for Improving Strategic and Operational Business-IT Alignment
Proceedings of the 15th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Brisbane, Australia

View Abstract
The literature suggests that business-IT alignment is an important antecedent of IS success, business process performance, and competitive advantage. Additionally, IT governance practices are highlighted as being instrumental to fostering business-IT alignment. In this paper, we derive various IT governance practices (in terms of structures, processes, relational mechanisms, and enterprise architecture characteristics) from literature and expert interviews. While prior investigations only considered the effect of such practices on strategic business-IT alignment, we also incorporate alignment at operational level. Using results from a case study in the IT services division of a large multi-national, multi-divisional company acting in diverse industries we highlight the effect of various IT governance practices and offer new insights by showing which mechanisms are effective in facilitating strategic or operational business-IT alignment. Our results indicate the most important practices for both strategic and operational alignment.

Walentowitz, K., Beimborn, D., Schroiff, A., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Social Network Structure of Alignment - A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
The social network structure at the interface between a firm's business and IT units is of vital importance to business/IT alignment and hence an important IT governance object. Yet, there is a substantial gap in understanding the nature of these social structures and how they affect IT business value. Based on a literature review that comprises articles published in eight top IS journals since 2000, this paper identifies social network structure characteristics which represent antecedents of alignment. These are subsequently translated into precise concepts of social network analysis (SNA). The identification and formalization of such social network structures allow IT governance to implement social engineering mechanisms in order to influence the social network structure and thus business/IT alignment and IT value. Examples for such translated arguments are a high degree centrality of CIOs vis-à-vis other executives and strong ties in terms of cross-domain knowledge between the CIO and other executives.

2010

Walentowitz, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Influence of Social Structures on Business/IT Alignment
Proceedings of the 2010 JAIS Theory Development Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), St. Louis (MO)

View Abstract
Motivated by the importance of business/IT alignment for IT value creation and the fact that despite an extensive stream of literature discussing drivers of and success factors for alignment, the problem of reaching business/IT alignment is still not fully solved and alignment still ranks among the top three concerns of CIOs, we strive to explain alignment success based on the social structures present at the interface of business and IT on an operational level. While such structures at top management level are prominently discussed success factors of alignment, the analogues structures on the operational level have rarely been analyzed and there is a substantial gap in understanding the nature of these social structures and how they affect IT business value. We extend our prior research, which identified social patterns that are potentially beneficial for business/IT alignment, by adding detailed explanations of why these are beneficial for business/IT alignment. Hence, this paper contributes to existing research by providing new insights to the general assumption that social structures are important and by explaining why, despite the vivid discussion, still many firms fail to establish business/IT alignment. We find that strong bridges at the interface between business and IT, as well as strong connections of interface actors with their management and their unit are advantageous for the creation of IT/business knowledge, solidarity between IT and business and the power of the interface actors between IT and business, and in this way are beneficial for business/IT alignment.

Walentowitz, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Impact of Business/IT Social Network Structures on IT Service Quality
Proceedings of the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Lima, Peru

View Abstract
In this paper, we explore the basic premise that IT service quality follows the structure of business/IT interactions and thus highlight an important organizational design issue in IT governance. Motivated by concepts used in social network theory we build a model that proposes a causal relationship between structural characteristics of social business/IT networks and IT service quality. The model is empirically evaluated and explained using case studies based on five interviews in three firms. Thus we extend the general assumption that the business/IT partnership is crucial for IT service quality by identifying structural characteristics of the network among and between business and IT staff which enhance this partnership. Important results are that strong and bridging ties at the business/IT interface are crucial for IT service quality and that a good integration of interface actors within their own unit supports IT service quality.

Schlosser, F., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Role of Internal Business/IT Alignment and IT Governance for Service Quality in IT Outsourcing Arrangements
Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

2009

Beimborn, D., Blumenberg, S., König, W., Martin, S., Moos, B., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Erfolgreiche Gestaltung partnerschaftlicher Outsourcingbeziehungen: Relationale Faktoren im Outsourcingmanagement der 1.000 größten Banken in Deutschland
Books on Demand, Norderstedt (ISBN 978-3-8391-2901-2). Online unter: http://www.bod.de/index.php?id=296&objk_id=286442

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., Hoberg, P., and Schlosser, F. (2009)
Examining the Organizational Decision to Adopt Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) - Development of a Research Model
Proceedings of the 2009 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Phoenix (AZ)

View Abstract
What are the determinants of an organization's decision to adopt Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)? Although the paradigms of service orientation and SOA have become quite omnipresent in the IS literature, research is still lacking to provide a comprehensive view upon drivers and inhibitors of the organizational decision to adopt SOA. Based on the mature strand of adoption research, this paper develops a conceptual model in order to increase the understanding of the determinants influencing this decision. Thereby, the drivers and inhibitors are distinguished in organization-specific and innovation-specific factors. The organization-specific factors cover two aspects: (1) the compatibility of technology and organization (i.e., SOA expertise of the employees, management support for SOA, IT/ Business alignment, degree of process documentation) and (2) management fad and fashion. The innovation-specific factors cover the perceived benefits, perceived complexity, and standardization of available technologies related to SOA. Beside developing this theoretical model for laying the foundation for future empirical research, a further contribution of this paper is the development of a comprehensive measurement model for SOA adoption, which differentiates between the IT and the enterprise layer.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Schlosser, F. (2009)
The Role of SOA for BPO Intention - Proposing a Research Model
Proceedings of the Workshop on eBusiness (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Phoenix (AZ)

View Abstract
How does the availability of an SOA within a firm affect the potential of and intention for outsourcing business activities? Since one of the promises of SOA is to modularize the IT representation of business processes, it should facilitate business process outsourcing in terms of buying the provision of single business functionalities. In this paper, we develop a conceptual research model that theorizes the relationship between SOA and BPO intention.

Joachim, N. (2009)
Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA): An Empirical Investigation of Adoption Determinants and Resulting Business Value
Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Doctoral Consortium, Phoenix (AZ)

View Abstract
This research investigates the economic benefits which Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) promise. While more and more organizations adopt SOA, virtually none of them is able to predict the realizable business value of SOA ex ante. In contrast to the mature literature on the technological aspects of SOA, the organizational impacts of SOA are not explored in detail in the academic literature yet. Consequently, this proposal addresses two problems identified in current SOA research: First, a SOA adoption model is developed to evaluate the determinants of an organization's decision to adopt SOA. Second, a research model for enhancing the understanding of SOA's business value is developed. The first part of the proposal will draw on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework in order to increase the knowledge about the dissimilar impacts of different determinants which influence an organization's decision concerning the adoption of SOA. To address the second part of this research proposal, the model regarding the business value of SOA is based on the dynamic capabilities theory. Comparing organizations, which have adopted SOA with varying degree with others which have not adopted SOA at all, allows to determine the realistic economic impacts of SOA on an organization. Moreover, the business value model further investigates IT flexibility and IT business alignment as promising mediating factors which support the actual realization of SOA's potential business value.

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2009)
The Impact of Process Standardization on Business Process Outsourcing Success
In: Willcocks, L., Lacity, M. (eds.): Outsourcing Information Systems, Sage Publications, 142-164. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Outsourcing-Information-Systems-Business-Management/dp/1848604459/

Wüllenweber, K., König, W., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
The Impact of Process Standardization on Business Process Outsourcing Success
In: R. Hirschheim, A. Heinzl, J. Dibbern (eds.): Information Systems Outsourcing: Enduring Themes, Global Challenges, and Process Opportunities, Springer, Heidelberg, 527-548

Beimborn, D. and Joachim, N. (2009)
Proposing the Relationship between IT Business Alignment and the Business Value of Service-Oriented Architectures in Financial Firms
In: D. Kundisch, D. J. Veit, T. Weitzel, and C. Weinhardt (eds.): Enterprise Applications and Services in the Finance Industry, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer, Berlin, 78-93

View Abstract
What is the business value of Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) and how can we achieve it? This paper represents a conceptual piece of research which focuses on the impact of IT Business Alignment (ITBA) on the successful implementation of SOA, in terms of its business value. The contribution of this model is predominant in proposing a threefold effect of ITBA on achieving a successful implementation of SOA through the specific strategic needs defined by a particular firm in a specific industry, i.e., the banking industry. As a result, we show that the business strategy moderates the impact of SOA's general potentials on its actual business value and claim that this relationship is further moderated by ITBA, which must be thoroughly considered by practitioners deciding on introducing SOA in their firm.

Wagner, H., Blumenberg, S., and Beimborn, D. (2009)
Knowledge Transfer Processes in IT Outsourcing Relationships and their Impact on Shared Knowledge and Outsourcing Performance
International Journal of Information Management (29:5), p. 342-352 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
What is the impact of specific knowledge-transfer processes on the level of shared knowledge and, in turn, on outsourcing performance in outsourcing relationships? Drawing on a series of case studies covering IT providers and banks, we investigate several applied knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit or tacit knowledge between outsourcing banks and their providers. We examine the differential influence of various types of knowledge transfer on shared knowledge between the parties and on the resulting outsourcing performance. Results depict the differential impact of various knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit, or tacit knowledge, respectively, on the development of shared knowledge. Interestingly, the combination of both knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit knowledge and those dedicated to the transfer of tacit knowledge proves to be most effective. Furthermore the results indicate that high levels of shared knowledge positively influence outsourcing performance. In addition to previous literature, we found transfer processes for explicit knowledge in an outsourcing context to consist of two dimensions: The content dimension, primarily focused on in literature, and the sender-receiver dimension of transfer processes which are rarely addressed in outsourcing literature. The content dimension embraces mechanisms such as trainings, SLAs and standards that define how content has to be interpreted, whereas the sender-receiver dimension of transfer processes of explicit knowledge defines explicit, documented interaction structures between parties.

Schlosser, F. (2009)
Die Bedeutung von operativem IT Business Alignment für nachhaltigen Unternehmenserfolg - Ein theoretisches Rahmenwerk und Richtlinien für die Praxis
Proceedings of the 9th Doctoral Consortium WI, Wien, Österreich

Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Examining the Relationship Between Trust and Control in IT Outsourcing Relationships
Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Verona, Italy

View Abstract
What is the role of control in maintaining trust in outsourcing relationships? Although the literature is quite rich on conceptualizing the relationship between control and trust in inter-organizational relationships, there exist quite sparse quantitative works which help to evaluate the models developed. In this paper, we analyze data from 156 IT outsourcing relationships of German banks in order to get insights into the actual relationships between different modes of control and the level of relational trust in these relationships. Additionally, we examine the role of service quality (measured in terms of reliability and responsiveness) in this context. The results show that trust is positively related with most modes of control, and that there is indicative evidence that control supports trust in high-service quality situations while it leads to a reduction of trust in relationships suffering from bad service quality (cycle of trust vs. distrust).

Schlosser, F. (2009)
A Social Linkage View on the Business Value of IT
Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Doctoral Consortium, Verona, Italy

Beimborn, D., Moos, B., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
The Role of Client-internal Social Linkages for Outsourcing Success - An SNA Approach
Proceedings of the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Francisco (CA)

View Abstract
What is the role of a firm's internal social relations between business departments and IT unit for the success of its IT outsourcing relationship? In this paper, we propose that the relationship between business and IT of a firm is crucial for achieving effective outsourcing management and for enabling the vendor to deliver the services as demanded. Since the business side of the client firm represents the users of the information systems but the IT unit represents the interface to the outsourcing vendor firm, interaction between both units is proposed to be required for maintaining a good outsourcing relationship. Based on a survey in the German Banking Industry and by adopting a Social Network Analysis Approach which captures the interaction structure within the client firm and thus represents an innovative scale to outsourcing research, we show that tight social linkages within the client firm lead to higher service quality achieved by the vendor firm.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., Schlosser, F., and Streicher, B. (2009)
The Role of IT/Business Alignment for Achieving SOA Business Value - Proposing a Research Model
Proceedings of the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Francisco (CA)

View Abstract
What is the interplay between IT/Business alignment and Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) regarding the achievement of business value in terms of business flexibility? This paper introduces a conceptual model that derives propositions about how IT/Business alignment, IT flexibility, and business flexibility are interrelated and how SOA and alignment interact in order to increase business flexibility. We apply and integrate well-known multi-dimensional concepts of both IT/Business alignment (in terms of strategic alignment, structural alignment, and social alignment) and IT flexibility (technical and non-technical IT flexibility) and map the conceptual components of SOA (architectural and the governance dimension) to this resulting model. This conceptualization will allow for more profoundly structured research on how SOA contributes to business value.

Münstermann, B., Joachim, N., and Beimborn, D. (2009)
An empirical evaluation of the impact of process standardization on process performance and flexibility
Proceedings of the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Francisco (CA)

View Abstract
This paper argues that business process standardization, as part of BPM activities, is an effective way to improve business process flexibility and performance. We develop and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of the differential impact of business process homogenization and optimization on business process flexibility and performance. The analysis based on data from 85 large firms shows a strong and highly significant influence of process standardization on business process flexibility and performance. This paper is among the first to propose a research model and empirical operationalization to analyze the twofold impact of process standardization on business process flexibility and performance. For practitioners the paper provides actionable recommendations on how to apply the findings to their management context.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Münstermann, B. (2009)
Impact of Service-oriented Architectures (SOA) on Business Process Standardization - Proposing a Research Model
Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Verona, Italy

View Abstract
What is the impact of a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) on the efficiency and effectiveness of business process standardization (BPS)? The contribution of this paper is the development of a research model around the impact of SOA on BPS in terms of achieving fundamental efficiency and flexibility potentials while covering both the business layer and the IT layer of the firm. Drawing on an accepted and widespread enterprise architecture model, we derive propositions that explain why and how SOA's characteristics help to standardize business processes and how the interplay between SOA and BPS leads to an increased overall business value. Additional moderator arguments, such as the level of service granularity, the centrality of SOA governance, or Business IT alignment, are added to the research model as critical success factors of achieving business value of SOA.

Münstermann, B., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Join the standard forces - Examining the combined impact of process and data standards on business process performance
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Proposing a theoretical model for IT governance and IT business alignment
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

Beimborn, D., Gleisner, F., Joachim, N., and Hackethal, A. (2009)
The Role of Process Standardization in Achieving IT Business Value
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
We empirically investigate the interplay and impact of process standardization and IT intensity on business process performance in terms of efficiency, quality, control, and processing time. To this aim we surveyed the retail advisory operations of Germany's largest banks. We find that standardization enhances efficiency, quality and control of the advisory process. Additionally, IT intensity on its own shows positive effects on efficiency and quality as well, while it leads to more customer facing time needed for a single customer. Also, the interaction effect with process standardization is relevant. We conclude that IT creates business value through facilitating process standardization and process control. Our results strongly indicate that managers have to look carefully at the type of the processes before standardizing it.

2008

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
A Social Linkage View on the Business Value of IT
Proceedings of the 2008 JAIS Theory Development Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Paris, France

View Abstract
Our research intends to explore whether a social perspective on IT business alignment can help shed light on the IT value creation process by considering different facets of interpersonal linkage. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model which could be discussed at the JAIS workshop. Further, we use some empirical data from 149 US banks in order to find first empirical evidence whether our research focus represents a promising direction. We find initial support for our main hypotheses that communication, cross-domain knowledge and mutuality among and between IT and business staff significantly impact IT usage and business process outcomes. The final results of our research could contribute to our understanding of how the IT resource should be understood and used to measurably contribute to firm goals. The initial findings support the caveat of recent studies suggesting that informal aspects of alignment might be quite notable (e.g. Chan, 2002) and show that our theoretical understanding of alignment should be extended to better incorporate social aspects of daily work life.

Martin, S., Wagner, H., and Beimborn, D. (2008)
Process Documentation, Operational Alignment, and Flexibility in IT Outsourcing Relationships: A Knowledge-Based Perspective
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Paris, France

Beimborn, D. and Joachim, N. (2008)
Proposing the Relationship Between IT Business Alignment and the Business Value of Service-Oriented Architectures in Financial Firms
Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Enterprise Applications and Services in Finance Industry (FinanceCom) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Paris, France

View Abstract
What is the business value of Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) and how can we achieve it? This paper represents a conceptual piece of research which focuses on the impact of IT Business Alignment (ITBA) on the successful implementation of SOA, in terms of its business value. The contribution of this model is predominant in proposing a threefold effect of ITBA on achieving a successful implementation of SOA through the specific strategic needs defined by a particular firm in a specific industry, i.e., the banking industry. As a result, we show that the business strategy moderates the impact of SOA‟s general potentials on its actual business value and claim that this relationship is further moderated by ITBA, which must be thoroughly considered by practitioners deciding on introducing SOA in their firm.

Beimborn, D. and Joachim, N. (2008)
How to Achieve Business Value of SOA? - Investigating the Relationships between SOA, IT Business Alignment and Sourcing Strategies
Proceedings of the 2008 Special Interest Group on Services (SIGSVC) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Paris, France

View Abstract
Although many firms have started or accomplished to migrate their IT infrastructure towards a ser-vice-oriented architecture (SOA), as flexible and adaptive fundament of their business applications, there is still a gap answering one of the most essential questions associated with this new architecture para-digm: What is the business value of SOA and how can we influence it?

Schlosser, F., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
IT Value Creation in Bank Processes
EFL Quarterly (3)

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and Schlosser, F. (2008)
IT Business Alignment
WISU - Das Wirtschaftsstudium

von Stetten, A., Münstermann, B., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2008)
Towards an Understanding of the Business Value of Business Process Standardization - A Case Study Approach
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto, ON, Canada

View Abstract
What is the business value of process standardization? Alongside the development of industrial engineering of information technology and of business process redesign studied by Davenport and Short (1990), and Davenport's approach defining business processes (Davenport, 2005), other researchers offer initial insights into business process standardization research opportunities (Venkatesh, 2006). Based on this new thinking about business process standardization, this paper presents a step towards understanding the business value of business process standardization. A single case study with a global operating company was conducted to show how a successful standardized business process and a supporting information system can impact the process performance in terms of cost, time and quality. The process studied within the case study is the company-wide recruiting process. As the results indicate, the company has improved the overall process performance. The results provide an initial insight into an understanding of the business value of process standardization.

Weitzel, T. (2008)
Wertsteigerung durch IT
Managementkompass - Wachstumstreiber Technologie; F.A.Z.-Institut, S. 8-10 (ISBN 9783899819052), Frankfurt

Beimborn, D., Hirschheim, R., Schlosser, F., Schwarz, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
How to Achieve IT Business Alignment? Investigating the Role of Business Process Documentation in US and German Banks
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto (ON) Canada

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Drivers and Inhibitors of SOA Business Value - Conceptualizing a Research Model
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto, Canada

View Abstract
What is the business value of Service Oriented Architecture? Although the SOA paradigm has become quite evident in IS literature, a comprehensive model of the SOA business value is still lacking. Based on a literature review and on a multitheoretical foundation, drawing on the adoption of innovations literature and on the resource-based view as well as on resource dependency theory, we attempt to develop a research model which captures the business value of SOA, applicable to empirical research in subsequent studies.

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
The impact of process standardization on business process outsourcing success
Information Systems Frontiers (10:2), p. 211-224 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
What is the impact of business process standardization on BPO success? This paper argues that there is a direct impact of process standardization on BPO success, due to production cost economies, and also an indirect effect via improved contrac-tual and relational governance resulting from better monitoring opportunities and facilitated communication and coordination. This threefold impact of standardization on BPO success is empirically confirmed using data from 335 BPO ventures in 215 German banks.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2008)
IT Business Alignment as Governance Tool for Firm-Internal Relationship Quality: A Longitudinal Case Study
Proceedings of the 41th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
Many business processes are relying on a smooth and flexible IT support. A major finding of IS research is that in order to generate value from IT the complementarities between IT and non-IT resources need to be understood and orchestrated. Especially, IT Business Alignment has been found to be a key driver of both, IT value and business process quality. <b>But how to achieve alignment?</b><br><br> We present the results of a longitudinal case study in a globally active firm from the aerospace industry that shows how a new CEO implemented better business processes by increasing alignment. The results show an enhancing relationship between business and IT resources and concretize key findings from the resource based view. Overall, the case contributes by indicating that business value accrues from a simultaneous change of IS and business practices that was enabled by an increase in the level of IT business alignment.

Beimborn, D., Martin, S., and Franke, J. (2008)
Value Chain Crossing: Insights and Opportunities for Future Research
International Journal of Electronic Business (6:1), p. 93-109 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
In this article, we present a research framework that tackles a promising area of e-Business largely neglected before, namely the lateral cooperation of firms from two different industries that interconnect their business processes by means of electronic integration. We refer to this kind of e-Business cooperation as "value chain crossing" and explore, as an exemplary application domain, the integration of financial processes in non-banks and financial service providers. To support our research proposal, we provide exploratory findings from an empirical survey accompanied by a series of case studies which indicate that research in this area of e-Business is worthwhile to be conducted. We identified empirical evidence for a large potential of value chain crossing but also found substantial inhibitors for the adoption of this idea.

2007

Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
What makes successful banks successful? - The key role of alignment in financial process quality
Proceedings of the 2007 SIM Academic Workshop on IT Business Alignment (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Montreal (QC), Canada

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Proposing an Instrument for Evaluating the Business Value of Service-Oriented Architectures
Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Enterprise Applications and Services in Finance Industry (FinanceCom) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Montreal (QC), Canada

View Abstract
This paper presents a framework assisting managers in their decision making about introducing a service-oriented architecture (SOA). The benefits, risks and efforts associated with SOA are discussed from a business value perspective. The paper contributes to the literature by suggesting a unified foundation for the debate on the business value of SOA by proposing concrete value drivers and their interrelations.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Towards an IT production function: understanding routines as fundamental for IT value creation
Journal of Enterprise Information Management (20:4), p. 380-395 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
The goal of this paper is to identify core IT value drivers in firms and to model them as an IT production function to help disclose and measure the IT value creation process and to guide managers in seeking adequate ways of employing the IT resource. Based on a critical review of the literature on the resource-based view, an IT value framework based on the constructs IT capability, resource, and routine is developed and then formalized as an IT production function. Organizational routines are decisive for turning firm resources into an IT capability and in turn into better business process performance. We show how the IT value creation process in general and routines in particular can be measured and formalized. As the interaction between IT and business units is crucial for IT value generation, organizational routines provide for important knowledge flows that turn firm resources into value generating capabilities. We propose a concrete method to measure and evaluate these routines and thereby contribute to making the IT resource controllable. Our main contribution is the identification and analytical formalization of the role of rou-tines for IT value creation. We show how insights from the resource-based view, micro-economic theory (Cobb-Douglas/CES production function), and Granovetter's strength of ties argument can be used to describe, measure, and guide IT value creation and to develop an IT production function.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
The Impact of Operational Alignment on IT Flexibility - Empirical Evidence from a Survey in the German Banking Industry
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)

View Abstract
Alignment and IT flexibility have been found to be crucial for a firm's long-term success in many indus-tries. This paper investigates how alignment and flexibility are interrelated at an operational level. Based on a survey with Germany's Top 1,000 banks we show on a business process level that shared knowledge and mutual understanding (as dimensions of alignment) between IT unit and business department have a positive impact on IT flexibility. On the other hand, higher degrees of communication between business and IT units do not correlate with higher IT flexibility.

Martin, S., Beimborn, D., Parikh, M., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Getting ready for success: may alignment be of help?
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)

Beimborn, D. and Blumenberg, S. (2007)
How to Measure Relationships - Merging Alignment and Outsourcing Research towards a Unified Relationship Quality Construct
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)

View Abstract
The literature has shown that relationship management between and within different entities is crucial in manifold contexts. The prominent IS research strands of IT business alignment and outsourcing relationships tackle this topic from different perspectives. We argue that there are strong overlaps of these concepts and claim for a consolidation of both research strands. We match both research stream´s measurement constructs, show the overlap as well as the remainder and propose a unified model. This model consists of six dimensions and allows for a combined measurement of relationships between business and IT units within as well as across organizational boundaries.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
The Influence of Alignment on the Post-Implementation Success of a Core Banking Information System: An Embedded Case Study
Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
The literature suggests that the success of an information system among others depends on its utilization. In this paper, we argue that operational IT business alignment is an important driver of system usage and thereby of the market success of the supported business process. Using an embedded case study in four branches, the back office, and the IT department of a retail bank, many findings of the recent alignment literature can be supported. Using a strict business process perspective, we also offer new insights by showing that alignment is important for IS success in operations as well and positively influences post-implementation IS usage. In particular, mutual understanding between the units and shared domain knowledge not only between IT and business but also between different business units supported by the same core IS turned out to be very important factors of IS usage that have so far been neglected.

2006

Wüllenweber, K., Gewald, H., Franke, J., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2006)
Business Process Outsourcing: Eine Nutzen- und Risikoanalyse in der deutschen Bankenbranche
Books on Demand, Norderstedt

Franke, J., König, W., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Industrialisierung von Finanzprozessen: Herausforderungen, Chancen, Vorgehensmodell
Zeitschrift für Controlling & Management (ZfCM)

Weitzel, T. (2006)
A Business Process Perspective on the IS Resource: Outsourcing, IT Business Alignment, and IS Business Value
Institute of Information Systems, Goethe University

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Gomber, P., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Die Bedeutung des Alignments von IT und Fachressourcen in Finanzprozessen: Eine empirische Untersuchung
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (48:5), p. 331-339 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Wie kann die Ressource IT wertschaffend eingesetzt werden? Auf der theoretischen Grundlage des Resource-based View of IT sowie der Alignment-Literatur argumentieren wir, dass die tatsächliche Nutzung der IT sowie das Zusammenspiel zwischen IT und Fachabteilungen grundlegend für die Leistung von IT-intensiven Geschäftsprozessen sind. Das entwickelte Wirkmodell wird in einer Studie unter den 1.000 größten Banken Deutschlands empirisch untersucht. Es zeigt sich, dass die Leistung des untersuchten Geschäftsprozesses, wie hypothetisiert, stark von einem Alignment zwischen der IT- und der Geschäftsdomäne abhängt. Ebenso wird deutlich, dass ein bestimmtes Ausmaß fachlicher Ressourcen entscheidend ist und auch eine herausragende IT-Ausstattung und -Unterstützung keine Mängel hinsichtlich dieser fachlichen Ressourcen ausgleichen kann. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen damit wichtige Einsichten der Literatur zu Alignment auch auf Prozessebene und zeigen im Gegensatz zu bestehender Literatur theoretisch wie empirisch, dass der Wertbeitrag der IT nicht ohne Berücksichtigung der Nicht-IT-Fachkompetenz untersucht werden kann.

Franke, J. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Strategisches Sourcing im KMU-Kreditgeschäft
Zeitschrift für das gesamte Kreditwesen, Fritz Knapp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Operational IT Business Alignment as the Missing Link from IT Strategy to Firm Success
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
Strategic alignment deals with the capability of IT to both shape and support business strategy. It can be interpreted as an organizational learning process that combines business and IT knowledge to support business objectives and can positively affect organizational profitability by creating superior strategies that achieve a competitive advantage. These strategies have to be implemented, because strategies are only effective when they are translated into actions readily. Therefore, in this paper we introduce the concept of operational IT business alignment, reflecting the functional integration at the structural level and representing the link between business and IT structure. Using structural equation modeling and data from 136 banks we show that operational IT business alignment positively impacts dynamic IT and business capabilities and in turn strategic alignment and firm performance.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Social Interaction as Constituting Element of Routines: Incorporating Social Network Analysis into IS research
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
Organizational routines known from the Resource-based View (RBV) are considered elementary for IT value creation as they determine the efficiency with which firms transform inputs to outputs. As routines are socially complex patterns of inter-action, we incorporate findings from the literature on the Resource-based view and Social Network Analysis to disclose the social formation of organizational routines as a constituting element. Our model extends the central findings of the RBV by considering the impact of the social embeddedness of a firm's employees using Granovetter's strength of ties argument. The proposed model can be used for a sensitivity analysis regarding the impact of different interaction patterns between and among organizational units on business process performance. The model provides good support for the effects cited in the literature and is illustrated by a case.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Strategy Matters - The Role of Strategy Type for IT Business Value
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
There is a general consensus among practitioners and researchers alike that IT business alignment improves business performance. Alignment mostly is researched at a strategic level, but has to be implemented in daily operations to be effective. Therefore, in this paper we introduce the concept of operational IT business alignment, reflecting the functional integration at the structural level and representing the linkage between business and IT structure. Using structural equation modeling and data from 136 banks we show that operational IT business alignment positively impacts IS usage and IT flexibility and in turn process performance. Furthermore it is shown that the effect of IT business alignment strongly depends on the type of business strategy a bank follows.

Son, S., Gladyszewski, T., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
The Value of Management Control in IT Organizations
Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Göteborg, Sweden

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and Laurent, F. (2006)
Designing a process-oriented framework for IT performance management systems
The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation (8:3), p. 219-228 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
In recent years, control and governance of internal services such as Information Technology (IT) have become quite critical in organisations due to the enormous size of their expenditure. As a result, managers have faced growing pressure to measure the performance of IT departments. Several concepts have been developed during the last few years such as IT governance, IT scorecards, and benchmarking that have been considered by IT and business execu-tives. But surprisingly, a recent study by the IT Governance Institute (ITGI) that covered 335 CEOs and CIOs in 21 countries, reported while more than 91 percent of executives recognize that information technology (IT) is vital to the success of their businesses, more than two-thirds of CEOs are not comfortable answering questions about governance and control over their IT processes.&ldquo; The study validates that the major problem continues to be &rdquo;the inadequate view of how well IT is performing&ldquo; (ITGI, 2004). Hence, decision-makers and stakeholders within private and public companies are insisting that IT executives provide hard facts on mission and IT performance. As such, a promising performance management system is required: setting performance targets, designing efficiency and effectiveness measure, systematically and accurately measuring outcomes, and then using the results for fact-based decision-making. This paper shows, which concepts and frameworks currently exist to measure the performance of the IT department and its delivered IS services. We discuss how a performance management system might be designed and implemented with the purpose to monitor and improve the IT function within a major financial institution in Europe. Finally, this paper pro-vides lessons learned and some recommendations for further research in the area of IT performance management.

Weitzel, T. (2006)
Process governance and optimization for IT Reliant Business Processes: an empirical analysis of financial processes in Germany's Fortune 1,000 non-banks
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
What is the impact of process orientation, analysis and documentation on process quality? In this paper, using financial processes in non-banks ("financial chain") as application domain an optimization framework for IT reliant business process is proposed and empirically evaluated. It is shown that a proper process orientation, documentation and process analysis is a necessary yet often neglected prerequisite for efficiency improvements. The framework can be used for preparing the business case for integration and outsourcing projects. Overall, the results empirically confirm the often neglected claim that you need to explicitly know and measure what you want to optimize.

Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
IT Business Alignment and IT Usage in Operational Processes: A Retail Banking Case
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
What is the impact of operational (i.e. non-strategic) IT business alignment on IT usage? Using case studies in three branches of a retail bank employing identical information systems, many findings of the alignment literature can be supported. The cases also add new insights by showing that alignment is important in operations as well, and that alignment positively impacts IT usage. Especially mutual understanding between the business units and the IT unit turned out to be the single most important factor of IT usage that resulted from frequent interaction and, as far as the IT unit is concerned, from the business orientation of the IT personnel.

2005

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Role of Experience for Outsourcing Evaluation
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (47:6), p. 431-440 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
How can outsourcing be used to improve financial processes and what role does managers' experience with outsourcing play for outsourcing decisions? An empirical survey with CFOs of Germany's Fortune 1,000 firms (non-banks) reveals that (1) there are substantial efficiency potentials in the financial chain of many firms, (2) outsourcing these secondary processes is still quite rare, and (3) prior outsourcing experience of managers has a strong impact on the evaluation of the competencies of external service providers: an experienced manager is more likely to appreciate the provider's skills, someone without outsourcing experience presumes the higher competencies inhouse.

Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
IT Management in Banks - The Role of Alignment and Usage
EFL-Quarterly 4/2005, Frankfurt am Main

View Abstract
In a case study in the German retail banking business it is shown that alignment between IT and business unit is crucial for the actual usage of IT systems which in turn is a key driver for business process quality. Banks should therefore foster interrelationships between IT and business as well as cross functional work biographies of team leaders.

Wahrenburg, M., König, W., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Gellrich, T., Hackethal, A., Holzh, M., Schwarze, F., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Kreditprozess-Management: Status Quo und Zukunft des Kreditprozesses bei Deutschlands 500 größten Kreditinstituten
Books on Demand , Norderstedt (ISBN: 978-3833431593). Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Kreditprozess-Management-Zukunft-Kreditprozesses-Deutschlands-Kreditinstituten/dp/3833431598

View Abstract
Auf Grundlage einer empirischen Studie des E-Finance Lab mit den größten 519 deutschen Kreditinstituten zeigen die Autoren, dass über die Hälfte der Institute mit den eigenen Kreditprozessen und der Zinsmarge nicht zufrieden ist, ein Drittel den Anteil der gewinnbringenden Kundenbeziehungen nicht kennen, nur 7% den gesamten Kreditprozess durch ein einziges System abwickeln und nur 22% der Institute elektronische Kreditakten haben und Vertriebsmitarbeiter weniger als die Hälfte ihrer Arbeitszeit mit Kunden verbringen. Outsourcing wird dabei als wichtiger Trend gesehen, aktuell indes zurückhaltend betrieben. Im Rahmen der erwarteten Segmentierung der Bankenlandschaft möchten sich neun von zehn Banken auf den Vertrieb spezialisieren. Allerdings sind die Bereitschaft zum Fremdbezug von Leistungen und der Vorbereitungsstand gering. So haben erst 46% der Privatbanken Outsourcing-Optionen bewertet, 31% der Genossenschaftsbanken und nur 22% der Landesbanken/Sparkassen. Das Buch zeigt operationelle Verbesserungspotentiale für alle Teile des Kreditprozesses auf und identifiziert Ansätze für eine bessere Konfiguration der zugrunde liegenden Prozesskette im Spannungsfeld von Eigenerstellung und Outsourcing.

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and Laurent, F. (2005)
IT Performance Management - Methodology, Metrics and Application
Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Performance Measurement and Management Control (EIASM), Nice, France

View Abstract
As many organizations search for ways to compete more effectively in today's ever-growing markets, managers are increasingly focusing on internal services. One internal service function that has especially gained a lot of attention is Information Technology (IT) due to the enormous size of its expenditure. Increasingly, decision authorities within private and public sector companies are insisting that IS executives provide hard facts on IT mission and performance. Key performance indicators, governance structures, and new reference models (e.g. CobiT) are aimed at demonstrating how well the IT department and relating processes perform and improve over time. In this context, IT governance has evolved as a challenge to provide a management control system that aims to annul various frequently found disadvantages of uncoordinated decisions, lack of transparency and insufficient alignment between business and IT goals. Based on a comprehensive analysis of current performance management frameworks, we have designed and deployed an IT management scorecard within a Major European Financial Institution. The paper provides valuable insigths concerning the different implementation steps of IT scorecards and related problems.

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and Laurent, F. (2005)
Designing a process-oriented framework for IT performance management systems
Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE), Turku, Finnland

View Abstract
This paper show, which concepts and frameworks currently exist to measure the performance of the IT department and it's delivered, IS services. We discuss how a performance management system might be designed and implemented with the purpose to monitor and improve the IT function. A performance metrics catalogue has been elaborated to document and to enable a common understanding of the individual metrics. Finally, this paper provides lessons learned and some recommendations for further research in the area of IT performance management.

Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Role of IT Business Alignment for Value Creation: A Multiple Case Study among German Banks
Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Las Vegas (NV)

View Abstract
The ways in which IT creates business value is a key question in IS research and practice. In this paper, we aim to help reveal the role of alignment between IT and business resources in business value creation. In particular, we propose that the contribution of IT to business process performance should be investigated in the context of actual IT usage, with IT business alignment as a moderating variable. Also, IT flexibility should be explicitly considered. Using five case studies from the German financial services industry based on a causal model of IT business value creation reveals that the process of IT business value creation indeed strongly depends on the alignment between business and IT. But it also turns out that actual presence of business competencies is crucial and that even superior IT cannot compensate for business competency deficiencies.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Drivers and Inhibitors for Outsourcing Financial Processes - A Comparative Survey of Economies of Scale, Scope, and Skill
Proceedings of the 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Omaha (NE)

View Abstract
Economies of scale, scope, and skill are known to be major drivers or inhibitors for outsourcing business processes. This paper presents a comparative analysis of economies of scale, scope, and skill achievable by outsourcing financial processes in non-banks and banks based on two empirical studies conducted with Fortune 1,000 non-banks and Fortune 500 banks in Germany. It can be shown that industrialization tendencies within the credit business in banks are in parts broader sophisticated than within financial processes of other industries. Credit process managers estimate economies of scale and skill achievable by outsourcing to be higher than chief financial officers do. Furthermore, economies of scope, which inhibit selective sourcing, are evaluated as being less problematic. As a result, the credit process managers' disposition to outsource (parts of) primary financial processes in banks is higher compared to the CFOs' attendance to outsource parts of their secondary financial processes in non-banks. In accordance with common knowledge, economies of scale and skill are identified as drivers for outsourcing business processes while economies of scope represent an inhibitor. In contrast to common knowledge, our studies suggest German banks being on the way to industrialization and modularization.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The role of alignment for strategic information systems: extending the resource-based perspective of IT
Proceedings of the 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Omaha (NE)

View Abstract
The importance of strategic information systems in the financial industry is documented in many studies. But still there is a virulent lack of frameworks to explain the profit impact of IT in general and to guide firms in exploiting the IT resource as a source of competitive advantage. By incorporating findings from different research strands on the resource based view (RBV) and the strategic alignment literature we elaborate key concepts potentially leading to a sustained competitive advantage. These concepts are explicitly modeled and integrated into a financial services production function using the well-developed instruments of microeconomic theory. Especially interactions between the IT and business domain are found to be a key success driver. Supported by four case studies from the financial services industry it is shown how IT business alignment positively impacts process quality and in turn establishes a competitive advantage. Our findings suggest that the exploitation of strategic information systems in the sense of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage requires establishing an organizational routine of cross-departmental interaction.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Impact of IT On Competitive Advantage: A microeconomic approach to making the resource-based view explicit
Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Regensburg

View Abstract
How can an organization establish an efficient IS resource? Over the years, the resource-based view (RBV) has provided important insights into the value creation by IT. Unfortunately, large parts of the literature suffer from broad and ambiguous constructs that are problematic to validate and difficult to concretely apply. Furthermore, the transmission from IT resources on one side to competitive advan-tage on the other is not yet sufficiently understood. Goal of this paper is to clarify some of the often used constructs and build a framework for the transmission from the endowment with resources to the achievement of competitive advantage. In this paper, we aim to contribute to this research strand in two ways. First, a model incorporating many isolated findings from the RBV is developed. Reflecting the need for a process view as proposed by large parts of the alignment and strategic management literature, this is integrated into a single process framework of analysis. Second, by developing a microeconomic IT service production function incorporating organizational routines the transmission from IT resource to better business process performance is explicated, allowing simultaneous parameter sensitivity analysis and contributing to making the RBV applicable and open for empirical research.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Modeling the Impact of Alignment Routines on IT Performance: An Approach to Making the Resource based View Explicit
Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
This paper investigates the link between IT and firm performance by combining different theoretical perspectives and emphasizing the role of routines in IT-Business alignment. The basic concept of routines is operationalized and presented in an algebraic form allowing for explicit modeling and using of findings from the literature on the resource based view (RBV) and IT-Business alignment. How to use IT to gain a sustainable competitive advantage and in turn a plus in firm performance is a key question in IS research. This paper examines the RBV and alignment literature and elaborates the importance of routines in both perspectives. The results show routines are a basic underlying concept to understand the linkage between IT resources and firm performance. This basic concept is operationalized showing the functional relationships known from literature. The paper therefore advances theory and informs practice by combining different theoretical perspectives and making them explicit.

2004

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2004)
Alignment and Routines - Refining the integrative Model of Melville, Kraemer, and Gurbaxani

Weitzel, T., König, W., and Busse, R. (2004)
Beiträge zur Industrialisierung von Finanzprozessen durch Web Services - Externes Straight Through Processing für Master-KAGen
Information Management & Consulting 19 (Sonderausgabe), S. 64-72

View Abstract
Zunehmender Kostendruck sowie Liberalisierungen in der Finanzwelt wie insbesondere das Zulassen der Auslagerung von Dienstleistungen für Kreditinstitute durch das BaFin haben Outsourcing erneut zu einer zentralen CIO-Aufgabe gemacht. Für institutionelle Anleger bedeutet dies neue Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten und hat die Master-Kapitalanlagegesellschaft (Master-KAG) zu einem der spannendsten Trends im Asset Management gemacht. Doch vor der Realisierung der mit dem Aufbrechen und Neugestaltung der Finanzwertkette verbundenen Potenziale ist die Herausforderung zu meistern, die komplexen Interaktionen zwischen allen Beteiligten durch flexible und effiziente IuK-Architekturen zu unterstützen und damit eine nachhaltige Wettbewerbsposition in diesem schwierigen Wachstumsmarkt aufzubauen. In diesem Beitrag werden nach einer kurzen Einführung in das Master-KAG-Konzept zunächst betriebswirtschaftliche und technische Herausforderungen wie z. B. STP-Fähigkeit (Straight Through Processing) diskutiert und konkrete Lösungsanforderungen abgeleitet. Anhand einer Fallstudie mit der Allianz Dresdner Asset Management, Spezialfonds-Marktführer mit 12,5 Mrd. Master-KAG-Fondsvermögen, wird eine konkrete web-service-basierte Umsetzung vorgestellt. Insbesondere durch die mit Web Services einhergehende Möglichkeit, unterschiedliche Beteiligte sehr einfach in einen gemeinsamen Prozess einzubinden kann analog zu früheren Erfahrungen mit EDI im Supply Chain Management ein Beitrag zu einer Industrialisierung von Finanzprozessen erfolgen.

Skiera, B., König, W., Gensler, S., Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., Blumenberg, S., Franke, J., and Pfaff, D. (2004)
Financial Chain Management - Prozessanalyse, Effizienzpotenziale und Outsourcing
Books on Demand, Norderstedt. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Financial-Chain-Management-Prozessanalyse-Effizienzpotenziale/dp/3833413409

View Abstract
Einer Umfrage unter den Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland (ohne Banken) zufolge verbrauchen die Finanzprozesse in vielen Unternehmen ein Viertel der IT-Bufgets und bieten als typischer Sekundärprozess erhebliches Optimierungspotenzial. Die Autoren entwickeln eine empirisch fundierte generische Financial Chain und identifizieren Ansatzpunkte für Verbesserungen durch ein systematisches Financial Chain Management. Tatsächlich sind die Verbesseungspotenziale durch interne und externe Vernetzung erheblich. So wickeln zwei Drittel der Unternehmen den Versand ihrer bis zu 4 Millionen Rechnungen jeden Monat über die Post ab. Dabei liegen die Kosten je Rechnung bei durchschnittlich 15,5 EUR, im Gegensatz zu 2 EUR beim elektronischen Rechnungsversand. Die empirische Untersuchung sowie Fallstudien zeigen Verbesserungspotenziale in der Financial Chain, Einsparungen durch Shared Service Factories und Outsourcing, Wege zu einem Straight Through Processing sowie Ansätze zur Reduktion der Rechnungs- und Reklamationskosten.