Publications by Dr. Christian Maier

2021

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Joseph, D., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Turnback Intention: An Analysis of the Drivers of IT Professionals’ Intention to Return to a Former Employer
Forthcoming in: Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ)

View Abstract
Recent statistics indicate that most organizations prefer to fill IT vacancies by rehiring an IT professional who had previously worked in the organization. Less is known about what drives IT professionals to “turnback,” a term we define as returning to working for a former employer. To explain this important and rarely considered IT job mobility behavior, we build on job embeddedness theory and on the concepts of shocks and job dissatisfaction from, among others, the unfolding model of voluntary turnover to develop the theory of IT professional turnback. We perform fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of data collected from 248 IT professionals to draw conclusions about the intentions among IT professionals to return to work for a former employer, and develop a mid-range theory. Our results reveal two configurations contributing to high turnback intentions and three configurations contributing to low turnback intentions. Our model distinguishes between work shocks, personal shocks, and IT work shocks. IT shocks are a new category of shocks specific to the IT profession. We contribute theoretically by theorizing a behavior relevant to IT professionals and explaining attributes contributing to turnback intention.

2020

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Human resource management and its impact on strategic business-IT alignment: A literature review and avenues for future research
Forthcoming in: The Journal of Strategic Information Systems

View Abstract
From an information systems perspective, organizations striving to leverage a strategic alignment between Information Technology (IT) and business areas often underestimate the role of human resource management in creating business value. This literature review analyzes 71 scholarly articles to assess the role of human resource management in supporting the strategic alignment between business and IT. We identify the organizational role of individual human resources in strategic alignment, their contribution to more effective strategic alignment, and how human resource management supports such contribution. Based on these insights, we formulate propositions and identify avenues for future research.

Pflügner, K., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
The direct and indirect influence of mindfulness on techno-stressors and job burnout: A quantitative study of white-collar workers
Forthcoming in: Computers in Human Behavior (CHB)

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This study investigates how mindfulness at work influences white-collar workers’ technostress. Building on our understanding that perceived techno-stressors lead to job burnout, we apply the transactional model of stress and the model of mindfulness to understand to what degree mindfulness reduces the perception of techno-stressors and whether mindfulness mitigates the effect of perceived techno-stressors on job burnout. Our analysis of quantitative data collected in a survey of 134 white-collar workers who use information systems regularly at work confirms that mindfulness leads to lower levels of perceived techno-stressors, but does not also mitigate the effect of perceived techno-stressors on job burnout. The study contributes to technostress research by showing how mindfulness can help manage technostress but also by illustrating the boundaries of mindfulness in terms of technostress mitigation. We provide practical recommendations for applying our research results to develop technostress prevention measures and assess psychological risk factors at work.

Oehlhorn, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Gender Diversity in IT: A Case Study on Sustainably Successful Interventions
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the 41st International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Hyderabad, India
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Our research draws on the persistent issue of sustaining women in the IT domain and the related achievement of more gender diversity. We recognize that the strategic challenge goes beyond just finding and keeping more female IT professionals through single, stand-alone measures. Instead, the development of successful and sustainable diversity strategies as well as long-term talent pipelines is required. We conduct case studies with multiple organizations that obtained significant results in the context of increasing gender diversity. In line with research on the career development of female IT professionals and established human resource management functions, we present initial results on how to develop and implement sustainably successful strategies. The contributions for IS research on female IT professionals and IT human resource management as well as valuable implications for executives of our research are provided.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., and Reis, L. (2020)
Security Token Offerings: A Risk as Feelings Theoretic Perspective on Investment
Proceedings of the 41th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS)
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Security Token Offerings (STOs) are a blockchain-enabled way for organizations to raise capital. To realize this, STO needs to base on a broad user base, which is currently not established. We take an individual-level perspective and examines why individuals decide to invest in STO. We suggest a mixed-method approach and build upon the theoretical perspective of the Risk as Feelings hypothesis to study what shapes STO investment decisions. In Study 1, we identify perceptions and anticipatory feelings. Perceptions include profit expectancy, personal need, benefit of gaining STO expertise, support of disruption, trust in financial regulator’s approval, financial flexibility, low investment barriers, and opportunity for diversification. The identified anticipatory feelings are excitement, enjoyment, anxiety, and fear of missing out that individuals experience when deciding to invest. In the ongoing Study 2, we will analyze how individuals decide when the cognitive evaluation and feelings contradict each other resulting in decisional conflict.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Herd behavior in social media: The role of Facebook likes, strength of ties, and expertise
Information & Management (57:8), , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2020.103370

View Abstract
When do social media users click on sponsored content or intend to visit the website at a later time? A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) using arguments based on herd theory, strength of ties, and social distance shows that only “likes” from socially close and knowledgeable users can consistently generate click-through or view-through intentions. Considering social tie strength in a herd behavior context, the analysis of sufficient configurations for click- and view-through intentions provides a nuanced perspective on social media user behavior and social influence. For instance, click-through intention requires observing a “like” from a close person, while view-through intentions can also develop after observing “likes” from less close acquaintances, yet in the last case only if the user assumes the acquaintance is better informed regarding the sponsored content. In addition, a “like” from a close friend deemed better informed can even make a user click on a sponsored content that was not considered valuable before.

Pflügner, K., Maier, C., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Personality Profiles that Put Users at Risk of Perceiving Technostress: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis with the Big Five Personality Traits
Forthcoming in: Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE)

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Some information systems research has considered that individual personality traits influence whether users feel stressed by information and communication technologies. Personality research suggests, however, that personality traits do not act individually, but interact interdependently to constitute a personality profile that guides individual perceptions and behavior. The study relies on the differential exposure-reactivity model to investigate which personality profiles of the Big Five personality traits predispose users to perceive techno-stressors. Using a questionnaire, data was collected from 221 users working in different organizations. That data was analyzed using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). Based on the results, six different personality profiles that predispose to perceive high techno-stressors are identified. By investigating personality traits in terms of profiles, it is shown that a high and a low level of a personality trait can influence the perception of techno-stressors. The results will allow users and practitioners to identify individuals who are at risk of perceiving techno-stressors based on their personality profile. The post-survey analysis offers starting points for the prevention of perceived techno-stressors and the related negative consequences for specific personality profiles.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Thatcher, J.B., Sun, H., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Social Networking Site Use Resumption: A Model of Return Migration
Forthcoming in: Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS) , , https://www.uni-bamberg.de/isdl/veroeffentlichungen/preprint-manuskripte/

Maier, C., Mattke, J., Pflügner, K., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Smartphone use while driving: A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis of personality profiles influencing frequent high-risk smartphone use while driving in Germany
International Journal of Information Management 55, , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102207

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Smartphone use while driving causes car crashes, injuries and high death rates. To date, there is little research into what motivates frequent smartphone use while driving. In this study, we draw on psychological research indicating that personality profiles defined as constellations of multiple personality traits, influence individual beliefs and behaviors. We apply fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to survey data to derive profiles of drivers who use their smartphone frequently while driving. Our results indicate that personality profiles affect smartphone use behavior while driving and that three equifinal profiles, i.e. distinct constellations of the big five personality traits, influence frequent smartphone use while driving. Interestingly, a single trait can be low in one profile and high in another profile and, depending on the other traits, both profiles might reflect drivers using their smartphone frequently. We contribute to the literature that frequent smartphone use while driving is, to some degree, grounded in personality and that just looking at singular traits can yield misleading results. Complementing these theoretical insights by post-survey interviews, we can reveal distinct measures that reduce frequent smartphone use for each of the three profiles.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Bitcoin investment: a mixed methods study of investment motivations
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) , , https://doi.org/10.1080/0960085X.2020.1787109

View Abstract
Bitcoin is a well-established blockchain-based cryptocurrency that has attracted a great deal of attention from media and regulators alike. While millions of individuals invest in bitcoin, their motivations for doing so are less clear than with traditional investment decisions. We argue that the technical nature of bitcoin investments gives it unique characteristics and, consequently, that we lack a thorough understanding of how this affects the motivations behind bitcoin investment. We use a mixed method approach consisting of qualitative (n = 73) and quantitative (n = 150) studies and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to identify seven bitcoin-specific motivations (profit expectancy, ease of bitcoin acquisition, support of bitcoin ideology, investment skills, risk affinity, anticipated and experienced inaction regret) and how configurations of them explain bitcoin investment. The findings reveal, among others, that some individuals invest in bitcoin because they support the bitcoin ideology. Contrary to the traditional investment literature, profit expectancy is not a necessary condition to the extent that there is one empirical configuration of motivations that explains that individuals also invest in bitcoin even if they do not expect profits. The results disclose non-trivial investment motivation configurations and lay the groundwork for future studies of the role of cryptocurrencies in society.

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Turnover and Turnaway of IT Workers: A Person-Environment Fit Perspective
Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Nuremberg, Germany
(Research in Progress)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
IT Management and Change at an Energy Firm: A Teaching Case on Strategic Alignment and Business Process Management
Journal of Information Technology Teaching Cases (JITTC) , , https://doi.org/10.1177/2043886920935897

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This teaching case illustrates how important concepts and tools of IS management practice and literature are used in a young firm, challenged by strong growth and the need to integrate business processes and IT systems. The case is typical of many smaller organizations that are substantially different from large firms. Among others, the firm does not have a dedicated IT unit. As most of our IT management knowledge stems from research in large companies, the teaching case demonstrates and combines many proven IT management methods, and how they can be applied in smaller firms as well. Students will learn about strategic alignment, business process management, work system theory, business process management, and notation, and user resistance during IT-induced change projects in small- and medium-sized organizations.

Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., and Maier, C. (2020)
Do users respond to challenging and hindering techno-stressors differently? A laboratory experiment
Proceedings of the 2020 NeuroIS Retreat, Vienna, Austria
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Techno-stressors are typically hindering for users. These then cause adverse user responses, such as techno-exhaustion, which in turn result in reduced task performance. Latest technostress research adds two types of stressors: hindrance techno-stressors (HTS) and challenge techno-stressors (CTS). Using that knowledge, this research-in-progress paper develops a research model assuming that both types of techno-stressors lead to different user responses (e.g., motivation, techno-exhaustion, arousal) and, in turn, have a different impact on task performance. To validate that empirically, we propose a mixed-experimental research design following a pre-post approach with three different treatments (e.g., HTS, CTS, control) using among other different biomarkers (e.g., SC, sAA, cortisol) to measure arousal. The expected contributions and future steps are discussed.

Mattke, J. and Maier, C. (2020)
Gamification: Feature-Rich Mobile Applications, Brand Awareness and Loyalty
Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Marrakesh, Morocco

View Abstract
Mobile applications (apps) take advantage of gamification features to increase users’ brand equity in terms of brand awareness and loyalty. Previous research has shown that individuals use three types of gamification features: immersion-, achievement- and social-related features. We base on that knowledge and provide empirical insights into how the use frequency of these three types of gamification features relates to high brand equity. We base on a quantitative study of 150 users of the mobile app Duolingo, apply a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and suggest three ways how the frequency of using the three types of gamification features relates to high brand equity. The results show that there is one way in which the user frequently uses two types of features and there are two ways in which the user uses one type feature frequently and uses a second type of feature seldom. We contribute to gamification literature by revealing that there is an interplay of the three types of gamification fea-tures and to mobile app research by showing how gamification features relate to high brand equity. We also guide practitioners on how to identify users at risk to discontinue and reduce the customer churn.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., and Reis, L. (2020)
Is Cryptocurrency Money? Three Empirical Studies Analyzing Medium of Exchange, Store of Value and Unit of Account
Proceedings of the ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Nuremberg, Germany

View Abstract
Cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum or Ripple, are discussed as a new form of money. Typically, money fulfills three core functions: 1) medium of exchange, 2) store of value, and 3) unit of account. To examine whether individuals consider cryptocurrencies as money, we conduct three studies. Study 1 (N=57) provides valid and reliable measurement items for the three core functions of money. Study 2 (N=95) shows that the general perception about the fulfillment of the core functions is rather positive for cryptocurrencies. The results from Study 3 (N=99) furthermore reveal that Bitcoin is perceived significantly better in fulfilling all three functions than Ethereum or Ripple. The findings suggest that cryptocurrency research needs to include or at least control for the basic perceptions of core functions when examining individuals’ adoption or use of cryptocurrency as money. Furthermore, the findings suggest that existing knowledge from Bitcoin use or adoption research cannot be easily transferred to the context of another cryptocurrency.

Reis, L., Maier, C., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Chatbots in Healthcare: Status Quo, Application Scenarios for Physicians and Patients and Future Directions
Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Marrakesh, Morocco

View Abstract
The implementation of chatbots in healthcare offers high potentials for patients and physicians. Among others, chatbots reduce physicians’ administrative workload and weaken the worse consequences coming along with the lack of physicians. However, to implement chatbots in healthcare successfully, we need to respect special characteristics of the domain, such that the shared data is highly sensitive and that an incorrect or incomplete chatbot answer can have far-reaching negative consequences for health and life. To examine this field of research and its specific characteristics, we perform a qualitative study with 23 physicians from different fields having experience with automation in the healthcare sector. We identify seven application scenarios for chatbots from the physicians’ perspective and seven further application scenarios physicians assess as useful for patients. Nine of them enlarge and five of them validate the existing five application scenarios in literature. We contribute to research in the stream of chatbots by offering a combined perspective of physicians and patients. We also contribute by revealing specific domain characteristics from the physicians’ perspective, such as e.g. the liability question and privacy concerns. Based on that, we offer future research directions, in terms of next steps, but also potential negative sides of chatbot implementations.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Technostress mitigation: an experimental study of social support during a computer freeze
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (90:8), p.1199-1249, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11573-020-00986-y

View Abstract
In situations when Information Systems (IS) do not work as intended, using IS might hinder their users and let them perceive technostress; this then comes along with reduced user performance and high perceptions of exhaustion, among others. To alleviate these consequences, a mitigating behavior of stressed users is to seek social support to get instrumental (e.g., from the help desk) or emotional (e.g., consolation) backing. Using insights from psychology literature that suggest social support reduces the consequences of stressors, this paper investigates how instrumental and emotional support reduces the consequences of techno-stressors, such as reduced end-user performance, techno-exhaustion, and physiological arousal, caused by techno-unreliability such as a computer freeze. In a laboratory setting, measurements of skin conductance were used to evaluate the technostress of 73 subjects, manipulated by techno-unreliability and then treated with instrumental and emotional support. The findings indicate that social support increased end-user performance as well as reduced techno-exhaustion and physiological arousal. In particular, instrumental support directly influenced end-user performance, techno-exhaustion, and physiological arousal, whereas emotional support only influenced techno-exhaustion. Further, this study provides the first indications that the effect of social support on technostress depends on individual differences.

Pflügner, K., Reis, L., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Communication Measures to Reduce Techno-Invasion and Techno-Overload: A Qualitative Study Uncovering Positive and Adverse Effects
Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Nuremberg, Germany
Best Paper Award

View Abstract
The perception of specific techno-stressors, such as techno- invasion or techno-overload, negatively influences employees' performance and organizations' profit. Therefore, it is imperative for organizations to implement specific, deliberate mitigation strategies. Among others, communication measures have the potential to reduce employees' perception of techno-invasion and techno-overload. Basing on 38 semi-structured interviews with working employees, this study identifies five communication measures and their positive and adverse effects in reducing techno-invasion and techno-overload from the perspective of employees. Enlarging related research on technostress mitigation, the results show that none of the analyzed communication measures is limitation-free. Therefore, we conclude that organizations need to introduce more elected and comprehensive communication measures, representing employees' individual needs and characteristics to reduce techno-invasion and techno-overload sustainably. Theoretically, our research enlarges prior findings on technostress and on mitigation of technostress presenting specific mitigation strategies for two specific techno-stressors as well as positive and adverse effects of these mitigation strategies.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., Oehlhorn, C., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Benefits in Privacy Research: A Literature Review, Status Quo and Future Research Directions
Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Nuremberg, Germany

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Research in the stream of privacy considers benefits as an important and central concept. Benefits are the positive outcomes that individuals will experience when disclosing information. However, we see that only few papers theorize benefits in their research and thereby the operationalization and understanding of benefits is mixed, unstandardized and seems to follow no specific order. Based on that observation, we aim to provide a first step towards a standardized usage of benefits in privacy research studies, by summarizing existing benefits in privacy research and categorizing them. To do so, we base on the theory of perceived value. This theory uses five dimensions (emotional value, social value for myself, social value for others, monetary value as well as utility value), which we use to categorize different benefits. The results confirm our initial observations that indeed different constructs of benefits are used even in the same research context without justification. Implications among others refer to the recommendation to use the same term for the same construct and to consider all five dimensions of benefits in privacy research studies.

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2020)
Generation Z - die Arbeitnehmer von morgen - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2020 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2020
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2020)
Digitalisierung und Zukunft der Arbeit - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2020 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2020
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2020)
Employer Branding - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2020 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2020
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2020)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2020 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2020
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2020)
Social Recruiting und Active Sourcing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2020 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2020
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Reis, L., Mattke, J., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Conversational Agents in Healthcare: Using QCA to Explain Patients' Resistance to Chatbots for Medication
Proceedings of the Conversations 2020: 3rd International Workshop on Chatbot Research and Design, Amsterdam, Netherlands

View Abstract
Complete information is very important to the accuracy of diagnosis in healthcare. Therefore, the idea to use conversational agents recording relevant information and providing it to healthcare facilities is of rising interest. A promising use case of the involvement of conversational agents is medication, as this data is often fragmented or incomplete. The paper at hand examines the hindrances in the way of patients sharing their medication list with a chatbot. Basing on established theories and using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), we identify bundles of factors that influence patients lacking willingness to interact with a chatbot. Those typologies of patients can be used to address these hindrances specifically, providing useful insights for theory and healthcare facilities.

Maier, C. (2020)
Overcoming pathological IT use: How and why IT addicts terminate their use of games and social media
International Journal of Information Management 51, , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2019.102053

View Abstract
IT addiction scholarship indicates that pathological use of IT such as games or social media is on the rise. While pathological IT use, such as addictive behavior, can negatively affect private, social and work life, individuals displaying addictive behavior toward an IT are challenged to overcome their addiction. In this study, we aim to offer insights into how and why IT addicts stop their pathological IT use by terminating to use the IT. We interview individuals who have overcome their IT addiction to games and social media, finding that some IT addicts terminate their use of the IT without external support because they had a strong intrinsic or extrinsic motivation or because they felt stressed, frustrated or guilty. Other IT addicts required external support, contacting a therapist after unsuccessful attempts to quit or after experiencing a shocking event. This study establishes a new strand of research into ending pathological IT use and becoming an ex-user. We theorize IT addiction as part of the IT lifecycle alongside adoption, usage and discontinuation. We also offer practical insights into why some individuals can terminate pathological IT use on their own, while others require external support.

Tarafdar, M., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Explaining the link between technostress and technology addiction for social networking sites: A study of distraction as a coping behavior
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) 30:1, 96-124, https://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12253

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This paper investigates under what conditions stress from the use of SNS is linked to addiction to the use of the same SNS. Integrating three theoretical strands-the concept of feature‐rich Information Technology (IT), the theory of technology frames, and distraction as a coping behaviour-we theorize two types of coping behaviours in response to stressors experienced from the use of SNS. These are ‐ distraction through use of the same SNS and distraction through activities outside the use of the SNS. We hypothesize relationships between stressors from SNS use, the two coping behaviours and SNS addiction. We further articulate the role of SNS use habit. We test the hypotheses through a three‐wave survey of 444 Facebook users with data collected at three different points in time. The paper's contributions are to theorize and empirically validate the psychological concept of distraction as a coping behaviour in response to stress from the use of SNS and, in doing so, explain why there may be a link between technostress from and technology addiction to the use of the same SNS.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
IS Reappraisal and Technology Adaptation Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study During an IS Implementation
ACM SIGMIS Database (51:4), p.11-39, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3433148.3433151

View Abstract
Employees have to adapt to newly implemented information systems (IS) because they are often perceived as radical changes or disruptions. To understand such adaptation behavior, IS research suggests that employees first appraise the new IS and second perform technology adaptive behaviors. However, while the psychology literature indicates that adaptation is a continuous process unfolding over time, previous IS literature treats adaptation towards IS implementation as a rather singular, noniterative process. As firms continue to implement IS, an understanding of reappraisal and the influence of technology adaptation behavior is vital to ensure successful implementations. Therefore, the present paper investigates reappraisal and the influences of four different technology adaptation behaviors. We conducted a longitudinal study and used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to validate our research model. The findings reveal that employees reappraise the newly implemented IS over time regarding perceived opportunity, threat, and controllability and demonstrate that technology adaption behaviors influence such reappraisal. One specific finding is that employees might get into positive or negative reappraisal loops. We thereby contribute to research by extending the adaptation behavior literature and add a new piece of the puzzle to understand how employees adapt towards newly implemented IS over time.

2019

Müller, L., Mattke, J., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., and Graser, H. (2019)
Chatbot Acceptance: A Latent Profile Analysis on Individuals' Trust in Conversational Agents
Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Nashville, Tennessee,USA

View Abstract
According to industry reports, the lack of trust in non-human interaction prevents widespread Chatbot acceptance. Since the willingness and the ability to trust varies between individuals, this study examines to what extent the trust in Chatbots varies accordingly to different personality profiles. Drawing on the HEXACO dimensions of personality, we apply a latent profile analysis and identify three distinct personality profiles, which significantly vary in their trust in Chatbots. A high level of trust in Chatbots, e.g. Alexa, is mainly affected by the two personality dimensions Extraversion and Agreeableness and only slightly by Honesty-Humility. To prevent commercial underperformance and the shutdown of their Chatbot, providers should make sure that users trust in their Chatbot. This can be accomplished, if the Chatbot treats each user based on his or her membership in one of the three profiles identified in this study.

Laumer, S., Alter, S., and Maier, C. (2019)
A Systems Perspective on IS User Satisfaction in Digitalized Enterprises: Conclusions from Five Case Studies
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Munich, Germany

View Abstract
We present a systems perspective on IS user satisfaction that is more appropriate in digitalized organizations than prominent streams of user satisfaction research from several decades ago that focused largely on voluntary, individual use of IT. We developed this perspective by analyzing five case studies commissioned by managers facing user satisfaction issues in important ISs. Direct quotations from recorded transcripts of 111 interviews from the cases illustrated that IS user satisfaction issues involved much more than the IS itself. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interview data led to the conclusion that IS user satisfaction was formed as work system participants fulfilled responsibilities within work systems that produced product/services for internal and/or external customers. The information systems were integral parts of those work systems. IS users tended to evaluate an IS in relation to the extent to which it helped them perform their work activities and fulfill their responsibilities.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Hund, A., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
How an Enterprise Blockchain Application in the U.S. Pharmaceuticals Supply Chain is Saving Lives
MIS Quarterly Executive (18:4), (p. 245 - 261), http://dx.doi.org/10.17705/2msqe.00019

View Abstract
This article describes the MediLedger Project, which has built a blockchain ecosystem application that will prevent counterfeit pharmaceuticals from entering the U.S. pharmaceuticals supply chain. From the lessons learned, we recommend to 1) use a "benevolent dictator" and base governance on "consensus through collaboration", 2) to not store verified transactions on the blockchain but to instead store the verification on the blockchain, 3) to use zero-knowledge proofs to verify product and transaction authenticity while preserving full privacy 4) and to use blockchain application capabilities that are not found in traditional technologies, to fix ineffective IS landscapes.

Oehlhorn, C., Laumer, S., and Maier, C. (2019)
Sustaining the IT Workforce: A Review of Major Issues in 25 Years and Future Directions
Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Nashville (TN), USA

View Abstract
Attracting, recruiting and retaining a sufficient number of information technology professionals remains a key issue for organizations. Although research and practice call upon this issue for quite some time and suggest various interventions, the shortage of qualified IT professionals does not decline, but seems to increase. Thus, sustaining the IT workforce represents a recurring issue faced with challenges that are fixed firmly within the domain. This literature review aims to identify the major issues related to sustaining IT professionals from a human resource management perspective. Sixty-seven research articles from the AIS Senior Scholars' basket are reviewed to identify the major issues respectively to the past times from the dot com boom during the 1990s, across industry recession in 2001 up to the present day. Four major issues are explained and discussed.

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Attracting Young IT Professionals: An Empirical Study Using the Theory of Attractive Quality
Proceedings of the 2019 on ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Nashville (TN), USA
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
Attracting and recruiting qualified information technology (IT) professionals remains one key issue for executives for numerous years. The so-called war for IT talent illustrates the hard competition of employers for well-educated IT professionals who develop and advance future technologies. Thus, employers are required to court the young professionals' attention to recruit the best of them. Previous research lists certain attractiveness attributes but leaves their interrelations open. We therefore evaluate established attractiveness attributes referring to the Theory of Attractive Quality. To answer the research question? What attracts young IT professionals to an employer?' we conduct an empirical study surveying 223 young IT professionals and evaluate 24 attractiveness attributes that employers should or even need to provide in order to recruit young IT professionals.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Technostress and the hierarchical levels of personality: a two-wave study with multiple data samples
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 28:5, 496-522, https://doi.org/10.1080/0960085X.2019.1614739

View Abstract
Even though IS use has numerous benefits for users and organisations, such as improved user performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience technostress. Since technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads users to perceive it. Recent technostress research points to the relationship between personality traits and the perception of technostress as a research gap. Given that personality traits are structured hierarchically, we study how and which levels of user personality influence the perception of technostress. In developing our research model, we select personality traits from the three hierarchical levels of personality: neuroticism, personal innovativeness in IT (PIIT), and IT mindfulness. The results of 2 two-wave studies analysing data collected in an organisational setting (sample 1) and through mTurk (sample 2) reveal that all three personality traits influence the perception of technostress, with IT mindfulness having the strongest impact. This study contributes by revealing that user personality and, primarily, IT mindfulness influence the perception of technostress. Additionally, our findings reveal an inverted u-curved influence of techno-stressors on user performance, deepening our understanding of how the perception of technostress influences user reactions.

Laumer, S., Gubler, F., Racheva, A., and Maier, C. (2019)
Use Cases for Conversational Agents: An Interview-based Study
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the 25th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Cancún, Mexico

View Abstract
This study explores use cases for conversational agents using an interview-based study with 50 individuals. We report an analysis that illustrates which conversational agents designs are perceived as useful or enjoyable by individuals and are therefore a predictor for adoption and diffusion of conversational agents in both private and professional contexts. The results of the interviews are classified into seven use case categories: Use of conversational agents for information retrieval, smart home control, goods and services, car and navigation, music and entertainment, work and office and other. However, the results also indicate that in order to improve perceived usefulness, conversational agents must improve and become "more intelligent". Though, concerns such as privacy issues and transparency should be addressed by companies in order to ensure a sustainable development and diffusion. Hence, we conclude an agenda for research and designers of conversational agents to focus on use cases and conversational agents designs that provide the breeding ground for adoption and diffusion.

Pflügner, K. and Maier, C. (2019)
Mitigating Technostress: An Empirical Study of Mindfulness and Techno-Stressors
Proceedings of the 25th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Cancún, Mexico

View Abstract
The purpose of the current study is to examine ways for individuals to mitigate technostress. Practical observations indicate the importance of mindfulness for mitigating stress. Therefore, we study the effect of mindfulness on techno-stressors by relying on the theoretical model of mindfulness by Shapiro and colleagues. A self-rating questionnaire was distributed to employees of different companies, industries, business units, and hierarchical levels. The results of 134 responses reveal that mindfulness leads to lower levels of four out of five techno-stressors. The study contributes that mindfulness is a powerful resource in technologized work environments for the effective and healthy dealing with technologies as well as the mitigation of techno-stressors and that techno-stressors need to be investigated separately. Suggestions for the application of the research results and the development of preventive measures are provided.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Gubler, F. (2019)
Chatbot acceptance in healthcare: explaining user adoption of conversational agents for disease diagnosis
Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm-Uppsala, Sweden

View Abstract
In this research, we develop a research model explaining the adoption of conversational agents for disease diagnosis. Healthcare is challenged by a parallel increasing demand for healthcare services and a decreasing supply of healthcare professionals. Mobile Health is proposed to overcome geographical, temporal, and organizational barriers of healthcare services. Conversational agents (CA), i.e. software programs that interact with users through natural language, are developed that are even able to diagnose a disease based on an individuals' input using a chat interface. However, these systems face an adoption challenge. To understand that, we use UTAUT2 as theoretical lens and 35 semi-structured interviews with potential users of a CA for disease diagnosis. Based on that we propose a research model that contains (1) well-known UTAUT2 factors (performance and effort expectancy, facilitating conditions), (2) re-defined other factors to better fit the context (social influence, price value, habit), and (3) newly identified ones (privacy risk expectancy, trust in provider and system, compatibility, experience in e-diagnosis, access to health system). We also reveal that hedonic motivation is not relevant for CA adoption. The newly proposed model addresses research gaps in CA research in general, but also in mHealth and especially the use of CA in healthcare research in particular. We also discuss rather general implications for technology acceptance research and provide some suggestions for providers of CA in healthcare to increase the diffusion rates of these systems.

Wirth, J. and Maier, C. (2019)
Privacy and Speech-Disclosure: An Extension of the Privacy Calculus
Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm-Uppsala, Sweden

View Abstract
Besides disclosing information via keyboard, disclosing information via speech is on the rise, for example, when speaking with digital assistants such as Amazon Echo. However, when disclosing information via speech, additional information is disclosed such as volume, pitch, tone or accent. With this additional information, further information of the individual can be derived such as age, gender or race. Also, other individuals around can overhear the spoken information. Both may lead to additional privacy risks. However, previous research has mainly considered the privacy risks through disclosure via keyboard, neglecting the mentioned additional privacy risks through disclosure via speech. Therefore, to better understand disclosure via speech, we rely on the basic privacy calculus, yet extend it with further privacy risks through additional information and through other individuals around. We propose a quantitative survey, to shed light on the effect of the additional privacy risks on speech-disclosure and aim to contribute to theory by recommending scholars to include the additional privacy risks when researching on speech-disclosure.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Subjective Norm and the Privacy Calculus: Explaining Self-Disclosure on Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm-Uppsala, Sweden

View Abstract
The privacy calculus postulates that individuals disclose information when benefits outweigh privacy risks. Despite its wide applicability, research has also challenged the privacy calculus. It was shown that individuals disclose information even if benefits do not outweigh privacy risks. Two explanations have been provided: On the one hand, perceptions might lead to a miscalculation of benefits and privacy risks. On the other hand, additional concepts might alter the effect of benefits and privacy risks on disclosure. In this research study we provide a third explanation: We suggest subjective norm to be a factor which overlies the effect of benefits and privacy risk. Subjective norm is the perceived social pressure of individuals that other important referents around expect the individual to undertake a certain behavior. To integrate subjective norm into the privacy calculus, we use the theory of reasoned action as our theoretical lens. Based on a survey with 1,466 participants and a covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis, we can conclude that subjective norm has the strongest effect on disclosure. The results contribute to theory in the privacy domain, by questioning in how far the privacy calculus can be considered, without taking the environment into consideration.

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Employer Branding - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Digitalisierung und Zukunft der Arbeit - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Social Recruiting und Active Sourcing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Rockmann, R. and Maier, C. (2019)
On the Fit in Fitness Apps: Studying the Interaction of Motivational Affordances and Users' Goal Orientations in Affecting the Benefits Gained
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Siegen, Germany

View Abstract
Lacking regular physical activity is a pertaining problem in most western societies. Fitness apps are positioned to address this issue by offering motivational affordances to the user, which aim to enhance motivation and increase physical activity: self-monitoring, rewards, and social comparison. Yet research provides inconclusive results about their effectiveness. For clarification, this paper draws upon Achievement Goal Theory and theorizes how and why motivational affordances vary in dependence of users' motivation-relevant goals in supporting motivation and physical activity. Empirical validation among 283 fitness app users generally supports that motivational affordances need to be congruent with users' underlying goal orientations to achieve the benefits. As such, this paper contributes to fitness app research by resolving prior inconsistencies, offers a theorizing on motivational affordances and individual motivation-relevant differences, and aids practice in designing fitness apps.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Perceived information sensitivity and interdependent privacy protection: a quantitative study
Electronic Markets (em) 29:3, p.359-378, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-019-00335-0

View Abstract
From a theoretical point of view, previous research has considered information sensitivity in terms of potential negative consequences for someone who has disclosed information to others and that information becomes public. However, making information public could also have negative consequences for other individuals as well. In this study, we extend the concept of information sensitivity to include negative consequences for other individuals and apply it in a quantitative research study. The results prove that the extended concept of information sensitivity leads to a better understanding of privacy-related concepts especially in an interdependent privacy setting. We contribute to theory by defining the extended concept of information sensitivity and by drawing conclusions on how to use it in future privacy research studies.

Pflügner, K., Mattke, J., and Maier, C. (2019)
Who is Stressed by Using ICTs? A Qualitative Comparison Analysis with the Big Five Personality Traits to Understand Technostress
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Siegen, Germany
Best Paper Award

View Abstract
The purpose of the current study is to reveal personality profiles that predispose to the experience of techno-stressors within an organizational setting. These insights are useful because techno-stressors lead to considerable costs and adverse health effects. We use the theoretical lens of the transaction-based model of stress to study the effect of the Big Five personality traits on techno-stressors. We distributed a self-rating questionnaire among 221 individuals and analyzed data using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparison Analysis. The results reveal that six different personality profiles lead to the experience of techno-stressors. The study contributes to research by revealing that personality traits need to be investigated in profiles when studying their role in technostress and that different profiles of the Big Five predispose to techno-stressors. The results are useful for practitioners as they allow the prevention of techno-stressors and negative consequences by detecting users who are at risk at an early stage.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Justification of Mass Surveillance: A Quantitative Study
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Siegen, Germany

View Abstract
Online mass surveillance by governmental organizations is omnipresent. Even though this results in a loss of privacy and further negative outcomes for individuals, a majority is justifying mass surveillance. Understanding, why this is the case is among others important for individuals, who want to decrease justification of mass surveillance. Therefore, this study aims to uncover the factors that drive this justification. Drawing on system justification theory we consider mass surveillance to be a political arrangement. Five factors were identified that potentially drive individuals' justification of mass surveillance which are among others, perceived privacy control or perceived security. A quantitative study was carried out and the results support most of our hypotheses. With our results, we contribute to the privacy-related area in the domain of IS, by indicating that individuals consider mass surveillance not necessarily to be bad and by giving advice on how to alter the level of justification.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
How do Users Respond to Technostress? An Empirical Analysis of Proactive and Reactive Coping
Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, USA

View Abstract
As technostress costs organizations financial resources and threatens the well-being, it is essential for users as well as companies to manage technostress. To do so, users cope proactive by removing or reducing techno-stressors or reactive by restoring users' emotional state. However, literature is limited by explaining what factors lead to proactive and reactive coping in a short-term technostress situation. The present paper addresses these shortcomings by investigating in how techno-stressors and emotional exhaustion influences proactive and reactive coping. Results based on 110 users show that users respond to techno-stressors in a proactive way, whereas users reactively respond to emotional exhaustion. In addition, proactive coping is stronger affected by techno-stressors, and reactive coping is stronger affected by emotional exhaustion. Thereby, we contribute to technostress and coping literature by demonstrating how users respond in short-term technostress situation and highlight the importance of time in the present context.

Mattke, J., Müller, L., and Maier, C. (2019)
Paid, Owned and Earned Media: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis revealing Attributes Influencing Consumer's Brand Attitude in Social Media
Proceedings of the 51th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Hawai

View Abstract
This paper examines how companies can use paid media (referring to sponsored posts), owned media (company posts) and earned media (influencer post) to create a positive brand attitude. Based on the advertising value model, this paper takes a configurational approach and uses fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The analysis reveals a typology of five types of media, which influence consumers' brand attitude positively. We contribute to research by providing a typology of paid, owned and earned media, which can guide companies to create a positive brand attitude.

2018

Oehlhorn, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Is There an IT Gender Recruiting Gap? Studying Equal Opportunities during Recruitment
Proceedings of the SIG Social Inclusion (SIGSI) Research Workshop, San Francisco (CA), USA
(Research in Progress)

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Females' Handling of Threatening Experiences when Studying IT: An Explorative Study Using Coping Theory
Proceedings of the 4th SIG Social Inclusion (SIGSI) Research Workshop, San Francisco (CA), USA
(Research in Progress)

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
HOW ECM WORKAROUNDS EMERGE AND HOW TO AVOID THEM
Science2Practice Reviews - European Journal of Information Systems

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Oehlhorn, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
A Social Comparison Perspective to Study Negative Effects of Telework
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), San Francisco, CA, USA

View Abstract
Telework is indisputably important for establishing a positive work-life-balance for employees. Teleworkers are less stressed and more satisfied by work implying turnover intentions that are below half of those of regular office workers. However, recent practical indications suggest that there is also a dark side of telework, meaning that telework has adverse effects for office workers, who, among others, develop feelings of envy. To study these adverse effects for office workers, we use social comparison theory and suggest that a disparity of telework causes negative emotions and adverse behaviors. In developing our research model, we posit that office workers become envy, dissatisfied with their job, develop turnover intentions and perform worse. An empirical study with 269 employees working in one organization with telework arrangements confirms the hypothesized relationships. Therewith, this study contributes to telework research by providing an interpersonal perspective on telework and revealing that there is a dark side of telework for office workers, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from developing adverse emotions and behaviors.

Mattke, J., Hund, A., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Will the real Value of Blockchain Please Stand Up? Lessons Learned from Multiple Blockchain Projects
Proceedings of the MISQE Special Issue Workshop, San Francisco
(Research in Progress)

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Müller, L., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Bitcoin resistance behavior: a QCA study explaining why individuals resist bitcoin as a means of payment
Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), San Francisco

View Abstract
Bitcoin could revolutionize the system of payments, yet most individuals do not use Bitcoin as a means of payment. As the success of Bitcoin as a means of payment depends upon a high number of individuals using Bitcoin, this study examines why individuals resist Bitcoin as a means of payment. We draw on the status quo bias perspective and take a configurational approach, using fuzzy set qualitative comparison analysis (fsQCA). The analysis reveals a typology of four types of resistant users, who resist Bitcoin as a means of payment: the regret driven resistant user, the uncertainty driven resistant user, the transition cost driven resistant user and the cost driven resistant user. We contribute to resistance research and Bitcoin research by providing a typology of resistant users and identifying equifinal configurations of influencing factors leading to individual's resistance to Bitcoin as a means of payment.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2018)
The Influence of Resignation on the Privacy Calculus in the Context of Social Networking Sites: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 26th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Portsmouth,UK

View Abstract
Individuals conduct a privacy calculus before they disclose information by weighing benefits with privacy risks of disclosure. In line with the privacy calculus, if benefits outweigh privacy risks individuals disclose information, otherwise they do not. However, research has also challenged the privacy calculus because individuals also disclose information even in light of low benefits and high privacy risks. Given explanations refer to 1) altering the perceptions of benefits and privacy risks or 2) altering the effect of benefits and privacy risks on disclosure. Whereas studies focusing on the first part have provided explanations for why the privacy calculus is sometimes not confirmed, studies on the second part do not do so. This study is therefore considering the second part and is integrating an individual's level of resignation to protect one's privacy in the context of social networking sites. We consider resignation as a reaction of individuals to given privacy threats. Results show that when including resignation the effect of benefits becomes stronger and the effect of privacy risks becomes weaker. Implications for theory include that resignation helps in explaining why individuals disclose information even when only small benefits and high privacy risks are present.

Müller, L., Mattke, J., and Maier, C. (2018)
Online Advertising Research Through the Ad Delivery Process: A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 18th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Buffalo-Niagara Falls, New York, USA

Müller, L., Mattke, J., and Maier, C. (2018)
#Sponsored #Ad: Exploring the Effect of Influencer Marketing on Purchase Intention
Proceedings of the 24th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

Mattke, J., Müller, L., and Maier, C. (2018)
Why do Individuals Avoid Social Media Advertising: A Qualitative Comparison Analysis Study
Proceedings of the 26th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS)

View Abstract
Companies spend billions of dollars in social media advertising, yet some social media users actively avoid social media advertising for instance by scrolling over ads. To understand that, this research builds upon the advertising avoidance model and applies a qualitative comparison analysis (QCA) to identify configurations of perceptions of avoidance. We reveal disruption, distraction, excessiveness and lack of incentive as perceptions that are necessary - yet not sufficient for evoking the avoidance of social media advertising. Furthermore, we reveal three distinct configurations of perceptions that are sufficient and lead to avoidance of social media advertising. This research contributes by uncovering the influence of configurations on social media advertising avoidance and companies can use these findings to reduce the effect of social media users actively avoiding social media advertising.

Mattke, J., Müller, L., Maier, C., and Graser, H. (2018)
Avoidance of Social Media Advertising: A Latent Profile Analysis
Proceedings of the 18th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research

View Abstract
Some individuals actively avoid social media advertising, for instance by scrolling over ads or ignoring ads. Therefore, this research aims to identify distinct profiles of individuals avoiding social media advertising. We build upon the advertising avoidance model and take a person-centered approach, using latent profile analysis to identify different profiles of individuals, who avoid social media advertising. We identified three distinct profiles of individuals, differing in their perception and their level of avoidance: unconcerned users, playful avoiding users and goal-oriented users. We contribute by characterizing individuals avoiding SMA, so that companies can use these profiles to derive different strategies how to deal with different profiles of individuals.

Buettner, R., Sauer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2018)
Real-time Prediction of User Performance based on Pupillary Assessment via Eye Tracking
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction (10:1), 26-56, http://dx.doi.org/10.17705/1thci.00103
Best Paper Award

View Abstract
We propose a method to predict user performance based on eye-tracking. The method uses eye-tracking-based pupillometry to capture pupil diameter data and calculates -based on a Random Forest algorithm - user performance expectations. We conducted a large-scale experimental evaluation (125 participants aged from 21 to 61 years) and found promising results that pave the way for a dynamic real-time adaption of IT to a user's mental effort and expected user performance. We have already achieved a good classification accuracy of user performance after only 40 seconds (5% of the mean total trial time that our participants took to complete our experiment). The non-invasive contact-free method can be applied cost-efficiently both in research and practical environments.

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Employer Branding - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Digitalisierung der Personalgewinnung - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Social Recruiting und Active Sourcing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S., Gubler, F., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Job Seekers' Acceptance of Job Recommender Systems: Results of an Empirical Study
Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Waikoloa, Hawaii
Nominated for Best Paper

View Abstract
Based on UTAUT2 and the importance of trust to explain user behavior in relation to recommender systems, we focus on job recommender systems by developing and validating a job recommender system acceptance model. The results of our empirical, survey-based study with 440 job seekers indicate that beside performance expectancy and habit, trust is among the three most important determinants and it is especially relevant for women, passive job seekers and those without experience in using job recommender systems. The paper extends general trust and recommender system research by revealing three moderators for the trust and intention relationship. It contextualizes the UTAUT2 by incorporating trust as an antecedent of a consumer's intention to use and by revealing three moderating effects for this relationship. Hence, it is the basis for further studies investigating the acceptance of job recommender system, which has rather been neglected by prior research.

2017

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2017)
Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Employer Branding for the Female IT Workforce to Counteract Skill Shortage and Support Diversity
Proceedings of the MISQE Special Issue workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seoul, South Korea

Neugebauer, P., Maier, C., and Bumann, A. (2017)
Benchmark Proposal for Multi-Tenancy in the Database Layer
Proceedings of the 9th ZEUS Workshop, Lugano, Switzerland

View Abstract
The cloud is often utilized with the hope to increase the IT budget efficiency. The cloud service model Software as a Service in combination with its key feature multi-tenancy shines here brightly, but its adoption is complicated by the multiplicity of possible solutions. In detail, multiple multi-tenancy implementations meet many possible database systems requiring a reliable comparison to find the optimal solution. This article briefly explains multi-tenancy, its benefits and implementations. It also indicates through the results of a literature review that no benchmark for multi-tenancy implementations exists. It proposes and describes a benchmark and its setup to gain reliable results of the disk space usage and performance.

Mattke, J., Müller, L., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Engagement with Social Ads: Explaining the Influence of Herding in Social Media Advertising
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
Social media uses social ads that are enriched with social media likes (SMLs). Yet, existing research on advertising cannot explain how SMLs influence individuals' engagement with social ads. We build upon herding literature and the theory of the strengths of ties and explain how the observation of social ads enriched with SMLs influences individuals' intention to engage with the social ad. This paper explains the effect 1) of the pure number of SMLs of a social ad and 2) the effect of SMLs from strongly or weakly tied friends on individuals' engagement with social ads. We thereby contribute to a better understanding why individuals click on social ads and provide practical implications for social media marketing' campaigns.

Wirth, J. and Maier, C. (2017)
The Influence of Resignation on the Privacy Calculus: A Research Approach
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Information Security and Privacy (SIGSEC) Workshop on Information Security and Privacy (WISP), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
A majority of individuals have resigned in protecting their privacy. They think that privacy risks are inevitable and there is nothing they can do about it. We suggest that this is a reason why individuals disclose information and how the effect of privacy risks and benefits on intention to disclose differs.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Understanding Privacy Threat Appraisal and Coping Appraisal through Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)
Nominated for the Most Innovative Short Paper Award

View Abstract
Individuals differ in their motivation to protect their privacy. When facing privacy threats, individuals evaluate the threat (threat appraisal) and the extent they can cope with it (coping appraisal) which, in turn, influences their protection motivation. Hence, better understanding both appraisals helps us to better understand an important part of privacy behavior. We introduce the concept of mindfulness to explain privacy threat and coping appraisals. Mindfulness is hypothesized to increase both, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. A quantitative study is to be carried out to examine our hypotheses. We expect to contribute to the privacy literature by demonstrating how different levels of threat appraisal and coping appraisal are formed.

Maier, C., Wirth, J., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Personality and Technostress: Theorizing the Influence of IT Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Even though IT use has numerous benefits for users and organizations, such as improved performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience IT use as a source of stress, i.e. technostress. Since such technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads individuals to perceive it. Based on psychology research suggesting user personality as a cause of stress perceptions, this research uses the Theory of Personality to investigate how user personality influences technostress. In developing our research model, we focus on the dynamic, context-specific trait IT mindfulness and on the degree to which this trait determines the perception of technostress. This study contributes to technostress research by revealing that user personality in general and IT mindfulness in particular are determinants of technostress, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from perceiving technostress.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Analyzing and managing IT-induced work system changes
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Teaching Case)

View Abstract
This teaching case explores the challenges of changing a work system by implementing an information system (IS). The case describes the approach implemented by "The Bank", a financial service provider, when it implemented a new financial and banking IS "SysOne", and thus fundamentally changed its work systems. The case is a real business scenario, which bases on case study research conducted by our research team and it adapts recent theoretical advances in the IS implementation literature. Using this teaching case should encourage students to discuss IS implementations from a general "system thinking" rather than a "tool thinking" perspective. An IS implementation is not just a new tool, it is a change of employees' work systems. This teaching case should guide students to extend the efforts implemented to guide employees when implementing an IS beyond the technology to focus on the major IT-induced work system changes and thereby enable successful technochange.

Müller, L., Mattke, J., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
The Curse of Mobile Marketing: A Mixed Methods Study on Individuals' Switch to Mobile Ad Blockers
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, Korea

View Abstract
Mobile marketing investment continues to rise steadily even though online publishers have not realized the desired returns, due to increased use of mobile ad blockers. In this study, we take a mixed methods approach, embracing qualitative, quantitative and configurational approaches, to understand why individuals switch to using mobile ad blockers. We draw on the pull-push-mooring model to evaluate what configurations of pull, push and mooring factors influence individuals' decision to switch to using mobile ad blockers, identifying four distinct configurations of influencing factors resulting in the intention to switch. Furthermore, we specify the unequal effects of influencing factors and validate the quality of our results. Our research deepens the theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of switching to mobile ad blockers and provides valuable implications to online publishers facing the challenge of rising mobile ad blocker use.

Mattke, J., Müller, L., and Maier, C. (2017)
Why do individuals block online ads? An explorative study to explain the use of ad blockers
Proceedings of the Twenty-third Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Boston, MA, USA

View Abstract
Ad blockers are a challenging trend for online publishers, as an increasing number of individuals use ad blockers. To understand why individuals switch to the use of ad blockers, this research presents empirical findings that explain why individuals develop switching intentions. Based on migration theory, we explain that individuals' intention to switch to the use of ad blockers are grounded in factors that pull individuals to use ad blockers, push them away from not using ad blockers, and mooring factors either hinder switching intention or determine how pull and push factors are translated in switching intentions. We conducted 42 interviews and identified relative user experience, increased performance, improved privacy protection and improved security as pull factors, dissatisfaction with online ads as push factor and computer self-efficacy as mooring factor. This contributes to theory by providing an explanation why individuals develop to ad blocker users.

Wirth, J. and Maier, C. (2017)
Why individuals switch to using mobile payment: A migration-theoretic, empirical study
Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Boston, MA, USA

View Abstract
With mobile payment, individuals can buy goods and services through the use of a mobile device and wireless technology. Still, although the usage of mobile payment provides several advantages, such as a more convenient and faster paying-process, it is hardly used. Individuals rather stick with their current payment method, such as cash, EC card or credit card. In this study, we therefore try to find out, what factors would bring individuals to switch from their current payment method to mobile payment. We rely on the pull-push-mooring framework to depict the migration process from the current payment method to mobile payment. The results prove that dissatisfaction with the current payment method has a rather low influence on the intention to switch to mobile payment in comparison with other factors such as perceived usefulness or alternative attractiveness. Furthermore, switching costs have a negative influence on the intention to switch to mobile payment.

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Employer Branding und Personalmarketing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Active Sourcing und Social Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Women in IT - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Bewerbung der Zukunft - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Information quality, user satisfaction, and the manifestation of workarounds: a qualitative and quantitative study of enterprise content management system users
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (26:4), 333-360, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41303-016-0029-7

View Abstract
In this paper, we focus on a critical aspect of work in organizations: using information in work tasks which is provided by information systems (IS) such as enterprise content management (ECM) systems. Our study based on the IS success model, 34 interviews, and an empirical study of 247 ECM system users at a financial service provider indicates that it is appropriate to differentiate between contextual and representational information quality as two information quality dimensions. Furthermore, we reveal that in addition to system quality, the two information quality dimensions are important in determining end-user satisfaction, which in turn influences the manifestation of workarounds. Our study also finds that employees using workarounds to avoid an ECM system implemented several years is negatively related to individual net benefits of the ECM system. Hence, we conclude that when investigating large-scale IS such as ECM systems, it is important to differentiate among information quality dimensions to more deeply understand end-user satisfaction and the resulting manifestation of workarounds. Moreover, this research guides organizations in implementing the most appropriate countermeasures based on the importance of either contextual or representational information quality.

Oehlhorn, C., Laumer, S., and Maier, C. (2017)
About Well-considered Decisions, Favorable Alternatives and Sudden Ideas: A Qualitative Research to Identify Beliefs that Influence Women to Study Information Systems in Germany
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, St. Gallen, CH

View Abstract
Our research reveals motivational beliefs that influenced the decision to study information systems of female students in Germany. We apply a qualitative methodology in form of narrative interviews and interviewed 21 female students at a German university. On the basis of the theory of planned behavior, our results expose that a range of different beliefs exist which influenced the women's decision. We are able to expand the results of previous studies to the German context regarding especially normative beliefs, alternate choices or prior experiences dealing with information technology. In addition, we also uncover a couple of new beliefs that had not been revealed before.

2016

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Is Information Technology Solely to Blame? The Influence of Work-home Conflict Dimensions on Work Exhaustion
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
Using information technology (IT) can blur the boundaries between work and private life and contribute to an IT-based work-home conflict (WHC). Organizations and governments treat IT usage as the main source of WHC and have implemented laws and policies to restrict access to IT to reduce WHC. In this paper, we investigate the effect of IT usage-related and work-based dimensions of WHC: time-, strain-, and behavior-based WHC. Understanding the dimensions of WHC can help organizations and governments move beyond IS usage restrictions to identify and prevent the negative consequences of each dimension for employees, such as work exhaustion. We distinguish IT- from work-based dimensions and theorize their effect on work exhaustion. The results of a study of 542 employees show that the IT-based dimension of WHC only indirectly influences work exhaustion, whereas time- and strain-based WHC contribute significantly and directly to work exhaustion. Implications for research and practice are suggested.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
The influence of change-related stress on user resistance when an enterprise system is implemented: a longitudinal field study
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
When an enterprise system is implemented employees often respond with user resistance behavior. As employees’ work environment are changed significantly they also experience stress during an implementation. However, neither technostress nor user resistance research have focused on the stress related to the change induced by an enterprise system implementation. Hence, it is not known how change-related stress results in user resistance behavior and thus prevents organizations from managing the implementation process sufficiently. Therefore, we provide a research model that theorizes the influence of change characteristics, such as change complexity, switching costs and switching benefits, on change-related work overload and role ambiguity as change stressors, which in turn determines employees change-induced exhaustion. When this exhaustion is perceived as a threat user resistance behavior will occur. Using a longitudinal field study with 273 employees during an enterprise system implementation we provide empirical evidence for the proposed model.

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Employer Branding und Personalmarketing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Best Practices und 'Big Failures' in der Rekrutierung - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Wirth, J., Laumer, S., and Dürr, S. (2016)
A Temptation to Stalk: The Impact of Curiosity on User Acceptance of Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Diego (CA)

View Abstract
Social networking sites occupy increasing fields of daily life and act as important communication channels today. But recent research also discusses the dark side of these sites, which expresses in form of stress, envy, addiction or even depression. Nevertheless, there must be a reason why people use social networking sites, even though they face related risks. One reason is human curiosity that tempts users to behave like this. The research on hand presents the impact of curiosity on user acceptance of social networking sites, which is theorized and empirically evaluated by using the technology acceptance model and a quantitative study among Facebook users. It further reveals that especially two types of human curiosity, epistemic and interpersonal curiosity, influence perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment, and with it technology acceptance.

Dürr, S., Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2016)
A Literature Review on Enterprise Social Media Collaboration in Virtual Teams: Challenges, Determinants, Implications and Impacts
Proceedings of the 16th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Alexandria (VA), USA

View Abstract
This literature review focusses research on Enterprise Social Media (ESM) and its use within virtual teams. The paper includes results from 38 articles outlining the existing body of knowledge and showing the steady progress in this research field. Previous literature often thematizes the external use of social media and technological aspects, but this research concentrates on the internal collaborative use, its challenges, related determinants, managerial implications and its impact on business. Existing research illustrates key factors in each of the previously mentioned subjects. However, as research should consider the entire field, a research agenda for further studies in this ESM topic is developed.

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Bewerbung der Zukunft - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Techniksprung in der Rekrutierung - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Active Sourcing und Social Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Work routines as an object of resistance during information systems implementations: Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 25:4, pp.317-343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2016.1

View Abstract
When implementing new information systems, organizations often face resistance behavior from employees who avoid or underutilize the system. We analyze the extent to which such user resistance behavior is explained by users' perceptions of the technology compared with their perceptions of work routines. We developed a research model based on work system theory and evaluated it using a study (N=106) of a human resources information system (HRIS) implementation in one organization. The results show that work routines are an object of resistance during IS implementations. We identify perceived usefulness and perceived ease of executing work routines as perceptions of work routines during an IS implementation that have a strong influence on user resistance behavior. Additionally, our results show that the perceived ease of executing the work routines mediates the impact of perceived ease of use on user resistance behavior. In practice, our findings imply that interventions during IT implementations should focus on both the new technology and changing work routines.

2015

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
What happens when users are not able to perform coping mechanisms? An investigation of the habituation process
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA
(Research in Progress)
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
In some situations individuals are unable to perform coping mechanisms against technostress because of low controllability and resources. Thereby, they are repeatedly exposed to technology-related stimuli named IT-stressors, which should result in several user responses such as emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and poor performance. However, in these situations individuals might habituate to the IT-stressor such that the user responses are mitigated. We assume that the influence of the IT-stressor on emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and performance is moderated by this habituation effect. Therefore, we propose an experimental setting in which individuals are repeatedly exposed to a computer breakdown to which they might get used to over time. During the experiment, we draw on self-reporting and objective methods to capture user responses after each exposure to the IT-stressor, in order to analyze the change of the user responses across time. Thereby, we expect the results to contribute to technostress and coping literature.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Implicit Attitudes: An Investigation of Implicit Attitudes and Their Influences on Behavioral Intentions
Proceedings of the 14th Annual HCI/MIS Research Workshop (Pre-ICIS-Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
Attitudes are one of the three most-frequently studied antecedence of user behavior. Most of the investigations in the research stream of IS acceptance and usage have a pure focus on explicit attitudes, although psychological literature distinguishes between explicit and implicit attitudes. These unconscious automatic associations individuals make between an attitude object and its favorable or unfavorable evaluation are not taken into consideration in IS acceptance and usage literature. Hence, the present research zooms into the attitude construct by distinguishing between explicit and implicit attitudes and investigates their influences on behavioral intentions. Based on the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) and a survey, we conducted a study that captures explicit and implicit attitudes, to evaluate the research model. The research reveals that explicit and implicit attitudes are distinct constructs and that not only explicit but also implicit attitudes have an effect on behavioral intention towards using the IS.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Influence of laziness on data disclosure: an empirical investigation
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
"Smart devices think you're 'too lazy' to opt out of privacy Defaults". This was the headline of a recent news article indicating that individuals might be too lazy to stop disclosing their private data and therefore to care about their information privacy (IP). IP is an ongoing topic and has become even more important since Edward Snowden has shown that government agencies examine all digital communication worldwide. Nevertheless, research has been found out that individuals still disclose their data although they are concerned about their IP which is commonly referred to the IP paradox. In this research in progress we will research on the question whether individuals might just be too lazy to take care about their IP by not disclosing their data as it was indicated by recent news articles. Results will have implications for the IP research stream by better explaining data disclosure behavior and hence also contribute to the research stream about the IP paradox.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
A work system theory perspective on user satisfaction: Using multiple case studies to propose a work system success model
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
In this paper we use multiple case studies and apply work system theory to them to better understand user satisfaction in each case. Based on the IS success model and the three case studies we conclude that beside the classic investigated objects information and technology as proposed by the IS success model also additional component of a work system influence user satisfaction. In particular we identified that work practices and also the relation between work practices, information and technologies have an influence on user satisfaction. We also revealed products/services and customers as potential drivers of user satisfaction and analyzed individual, environmental, strategical, and infrastructure characteristics as important contextual factors. Therefore, we suggest a work system success model for an extended understanding of user satisfaction that should better guide organizations when designing and implementing information systems.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Successfully Implementing Enterprise Content Management: Lessons Learnt from a Financial Service Provider
Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Fort Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
Information overload and content chaos are major challenges for organizations, as they have to deal with a high amount of unstructured content. With enterprise content management (ECM) systems, a technological solution is developed to deal with such challenges; however, these systems can only provide value to an organization if they are implemented in the context of an ECM strategy. In this paper the implementation of a new ECM strategy at a financial service provider is described to illustrate how organizations can on the one side design an ECM strategy that reduces information overload and content chaos and on the other side implement it successfully. The four keys for successfully implementing ECM based on the lessons learnt derived are an ECM team leading the change process, the acceptance of users by meeting the organization’s business needs, a metadata taxonomy enabling dynamic content delivery, and an effective change management from the outset.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Controlling der Rekrutierung: Erhebung von Kennzahlen entlang des Recruiting-Prozesses
in Praxishandbuch Controlling, W. Becker and P. Ulrich (eds.), Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, pp. 1-14

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Drivers and Consequences of Frustration When Using Social Networking Services: A Quantitative Analysis of Facebook Users
Proceedings of the 21th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Puerto Rico

View Abstract
In this study drivers and consequences of frustration, a negative emotion when using information technology (IT), are theorized and empirically evaluated in a social networking services (SNS) usage context. For example, when users are frustrated by using SNS they might stop using these services. As the number of users mainly determines the value of SNS this paper focuses on frustration while using SNS. It is assumed that both technology and social aspects of SNS usage determine whether users feel frustrated. Empirical evidence can be provided that perceived enjoyment, envy, information overload, and social overload are antecedents of the sentiment frustration. It is also argued that frustration while using SNS will lead to dissatisfaction and discontinued usage. Based on the empirical evidence for this cohesion the paper discusses its theoretical contribution in terms of that discontinuous usage behavior is a coping strategy applied by users to minimize the frustration sentiment.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
User Personality and Resistance to Mandatory Information Systems in Organizations: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Test of Dispositional Resistance to Change
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 67-82, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2015.17

View Abstract
This research is driven by the assumption made in several user resistance studies that employees are generally resistant to change. It investigates the extent to which employees' resistance to IT-induced change is caused by individuals' predisposition to resist change. We develop a model of user resistance that assumes the influence of dispositional resistance to change on perceptual resistance to change, perceived ease of use, and usefulness, which in turn influence user resistance behavior. Using an empirical study of 106 HR employees forced to use a new human resources information system, the analysis reveals that 17.0 to 22.1 percent of the variance in perceived ease of use, usefulness, and perceptual resistance to change can be explained by the dispositional inclination to change initiatives. The four dimensions of dispositional resistance to change - routine seeking, emotional reaction, short-term focus and cognitive rigidity - have an even stronger effect than other common individual variables, such as age, gender, or working experiences. We conclude that dispositional resistance to change is an example of an individual difference that is instrumental in explaining a large proportion of the variance in beliefs about and user resistance to mandatory IS in organizations, which has implications for theory, practice, and future research.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Extending Moore's Exhaustion Model: Including Further Dimensions of Burnout and Investigating Their Influence on Turnover Intention Among IT Professionals
Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Newport Beach, California USA

View Abstract
This research focuses on burnout as a driver of turnover intention amongst IT professionals. We extend Moore's exhaustion model by including further dimensions of burnout into the model, namely depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. The effect of stressors on these dimensions and the original dimension of emotional exhaustion is investigated, as is their influence on turnover intention among IT professional. Results based on a data sample of 154 IT professionals show that not only emotional exhaustion but also depersonalization leads to turnover intention. This outcome cannot be neglected when trying to reduce turnover intention in an organization in order to maintain competitive advantages. Moreover, while the stressors suggested by Moore influence emotional exhaustion, they only slightly explain the dimensions of depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. This indicates that these two dimensions of burnout are caused by additional factors, which represents a research gap worth investigating in future research.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Do we behave based on our implicit attitudes? Proposing a research model and an experimental study to investigate their influence on behavioral intentions
Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Münster
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Attitudes are one of the three most-frequently studied independent variables to explain user behavior. However, although psychological literature distinguishes between explicit and implicit attitudes, most of the investigations in the research stream of IS acceptance and usage have a pure focus on explicit attitudes and do not consider implicit attitudes. Explicit and implicit attitudes can be contradictory and both might predict behavioral intention. Therefore, the present research-in-progress focuses on closing the research gap of refraining to differentiate attitudes in explicit and implicit attitudes and hence examining the influence of implicit attitudes on user behavior. Based on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and surveys, we propose an experimental setting that measures explicit and implicit attitudes to validate the research model. The proposed research might contribute to the research stream of IS acceptance and usage by better predicting behavioral intentions by also considering implicit attitudes. Future results might explain distorted predictions of behavior and reduce the intention behavior gap. Furthermore, the present research-in-progress introduces a suitable method to measure implicit attitudes.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
What does the skin tell us about information systems usage? A literature-based analysis of the utilization of electrodermal measurement for IS research
Proceedings of the 2015 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria

View Abstract
The term NeuroIS appears more frequently within the field of information system (IS). NeuroIS describes the idea of applying cognitive neuroscience theories, methods, and tools to obtain physiological responses of the user while using IS. However, before adopting these methods into IS research, a proper assessment is necessary to determine whether the methods used in other disciplines are also applicable to IS research. The present research introduces the method of measuring the electrodermal activity (EDA). Thereby, the physiology and different measurement parameters are described. By identifying the use of EDA within other disciplines, the present research reveals application areas for EDA in six different research streams in IS research and poses further research questions, which might be answer by applying EDA in these areas.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., Weinert, C., von Stetten, A., Wirth, J., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2015)
Bewerbungspraxis 2015 - Eine empirische Studie mit 7.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Weitzel, T., Wirth, J., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2015)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2015 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weinert, C., Wirth, J., von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2015)
Recruiting Trends 2015 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland, sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Finanzdienstleistung, Health Care und IT
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Effects of Technostress and Switching-stress on Discontinued Use of Social Networking Services: A Study of Facebook Use
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) (25:3), p. 275-308, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/isj.12068

View Abstract
Although much research has been done on the adoption and usage phases of the IS life cycle, the final phase, termination, has received little attention. This paper focuses on the development of discontinuous usage intentions, i.e. the behavioral intention in the termination phase, in the context of social networking services (SNSs), where it plays an especially crucial role. We argue that users stressed by using SNSs try to avoid the stress and develop discontinuous usage intentions, which we identify as a behavioral response to SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion. Furthermore, as discontinuing the use of an SNS also takes effort and has costs, we theorize that switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce discontinuous usage intentions. We tested and validated these effects empirically in an experimental setting monitoring individuals who stopped using Facebook for a certain time period and switched to alternatives. Our results show that SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion cause discontinuous usage intentions, and switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce these intentions.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Why are teleworkers stressed? An empirical analysis of the causes of telework-enabled stress
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Osnabrück

View Abstract
Despite the wide dissemination and acceptance of teleworking, there are negative effects for employees. Literature shows that these negative effects of telework lead to undesired outcomes for teleworkers such as telework-exhaustion. The present research, however, goes one step further by identifying three significant telework-characteristics and hypothesizing the relationship between telework-characteristics and telework-enabled stressors. By doing so, one can understand the reason why telework-enabled stressors are perceived and identify the source of these stressors, which can then be counteracted to maintain the advantages of teleworking. Therefore, this research investigates the influence of the following telework-characteristics - information undersupply, autonomy, and isolation - on telework-enabled stressors and accordingly on telework-exhaustion and on the intention to continue teleworking. Results of an analysis on 310 teleworkers show that telework-characteristics influence telework-enabled stressors and accordingly increase the extent of telework-exhaustion and decrease the intention to continue teleworking.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weinert, C. (2015)
Enterprise resource planning systems induced stress: a comparative empirical analysis with young and elderly SAP users
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Osnabrück

View Abstract
In this research study we investigate whether and how ERP system characteristics cause its users to experience stress. In order to do so, we analyze a research model explaining enterprise resource planning systems induced stress with an empirical study in two organizations (N=227). The results reveal that usefulness, complexity, reliability, and pace of change are important ERP system characteristics leading to the perception of stressors and exhaustion. Furthermore, our comparative empirical analysis with young and elderly ERP users indicate that the elderly ones perceive ERP characteristics more negatively and are more stressed and exhausted than the younger users.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Who really quits? A longitudinal analysis of voluntary turnover among IT personnel
ACM SIGMIS Database 46:4, p. 26-47, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2843824.2843827

View Abstract
In response to high turnover rates among IT personnel compared to other groups of professionals, IS research has focused on factors contributing to IT personnel's turnover intention; however, only few studies have focused on actual turnover. To shed more light on actual turnover behavior, this longitudinal study of 125 IT personnel theorizes and analyzes the influence of job-related beliefs on turnover intention and behavior over time. Our results confirm a previously documented turnover intention-behavior gap, finding that 91 out of 125 survey participants indicate a high turnover intention, but that only 27 reported actual turnover behavior within the following 12 months. We further theorize this turnover intention-behavior gap by identifying IT personnel's personality as an important moderating variable for this relation. Specifically, IT personnel more disposed to resisting change translate turnover intentions into actual turnover behavior more seldom than IT personnel less disposed to resisting change. Our study also focuses on how personality influences changes in IT personnel's job-related beliefs and whether or not actual turnover behavior has a positive influence on these beliefs. Our results show that more change-resistant IT personnel change their degrees of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more seldom than less change-resistant personnel and that IT personnel who quit their job change their degree of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more frequently. Our results also show that intentions are a more suitable predictor for less change-resistant individuals than for change-resistant ones.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
The impact of business process management and applicant tracking systems on recruiting process performance: An empirical study
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p.421-453, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s11573-014-0758-9

View Abstract
This research focuses on the effects of different business process management components in combination with information technology on recruiting process performance. The results of a study of Germany's largest 1,000 business enterprises (response rate 13.1 percent) reveal that business process analysis, business process improvement and the usage of applicant tracking systems reduce recruiting process costs. Specifically, the cycle time of the recruiting process can be shortened significantly through business process controlling and process analysis, and by using an applicant tracking system that supports the design and evaluation of key performance indicators. Business process standardization combined with applicant tracking systems and business process documentation as well these systems used together with business process controlling have a significant positive impact on stakeholder satisfaction with the recruiting process. The general quality of the process can be improved through business process controlling as well as through a combination of applicant tracking systems and business process controlling. Our results reveal that several components of the business process management in conjunction with a supporting applicant tracking system have differing impacts on recruiting process performance. This paper discusses these diverse effects of business process management on process performance and draws implications for information systems success research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
Information technology as daily stressor: pinning down the causes of burnout
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p. 349-387, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11573-014-0759-8

View Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to identify information technology-related stressors in daily work life that might contribute to burnout. We provide a detailed analysis of techno- and work-stressors, techno- and work-exhaustion, as well as the consequences of and interrelations among these perceptions. Techno-stressors and techno-exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work-stressors, work-exhaustion, and work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed model assesses whether using information technology (IT) or other work-stressors cause exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes in terms of low job satisfaction, low organizational commitment, and high turnover intention. The results of an empirical study with 306 employees show that IT usage causes exhaustion because techno-stressors contribute to techno-exhaustion, which in turn influences work-exhaustion significantly. Our results also reveal that work-exhaustion negatively impacts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention, whereas techno-exhaustion only indirectly causes these psychological and behavioral responses through work-exhaustion. Finally, post hoc analyses identify that employees who use IT as a supporting tool for their daily work process (such as HR workers) report higher levels of techno-exhaustion than employees for whom IT is the core of their work (IT professionals, such as software developers).

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The effect of personality on IT personnel's job-related attitudes: Establishing a dispositional model of turnover intention across IT job types
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 48-66, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2014.27

View Abstract
Research on IT personnel has observed that the major predictors for turnover intention are job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Joseph et al. 2007). However, less is known about how these predictors are determined and how they vary according to the different job types of IT personnel. Hence, we develop and evaluate a dispositional model of turnover Intention across IT job types as the first approach in IT turnover research combining the personality traits of the five-factor model (McCrae and Costa 2006) and the basic turnover model found among Western IS professionals (Lacity et al. 2008) into one research model. By the help of the model we analyze the role of personality in IT personnel turnover across four groups of IT roles: consultants, programmers, system engineers and system administrators. The results of an empirical analysis of 813 IT personnel reveal significant differences across the four groups in terms of personality and job-related attitudes. In terms of personality traits, system engineers rank highest in openness and conscientiousness, IT consultants in extraversion, programmers in neuroticism, and system administrators in agreeableness. In 50% of all cases, personality traits are significant predictors for job-related attitudes. Additionally, they indirect affect IT personnel turnover intention. Neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness are also important indirect predictors for turnover intention, whereas openness has only a weak effect and agreeableness no measurable effect.

Buettner, R., Sauer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
Towards ex ante Prediction of User Performance: A novel NeuroIS Methodology based on Real-Time Measurement of Mental Effort
Proceedings of the 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
We propose a methodology of an ex ante prediction of users' performance based on analyzing the pupillary diameter variability captured by ordinary eye-tracking systems. Based on a realistic large-scale experimental evaluation of our methodology we show promising results that pave the way for a dynamic real-time adaption of IT to the user's mental effort and the expected user performance. Our non-invasive contact-free methodology can be applied cost-efficiently both in research and practical environments, without disturbing the participant/user.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 24:5, pp. 447-464, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2014.3

View Abstract
As the number of messages and social relationships embedded in social networking sites (SNS) increases, the amount of social information demanding a reaction from individuals increases as well. We observe that, as a consequence, SNS users feel they are giving too much social support to other SNS users. Drawing on social support theory, we call this negative association with SNS usage "social overload" and develop a latent variable to measure it. We then identify the theoretical antecedents and consequences of social overload and evaluate the social overload model empirically using interviews with twelve and a survey of 571 Facebook users. The results show that extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs. offline friends) are factors that directly contribute to social overload while age has only an indirect effect. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include feelings of SNS exhaustion by users, low levels of user satisfaction, and a high intention to reduce or even stop using SNS. The resulting theoretical implications for social support theory and SNS acceptance research are discussed and practical implications for organizations, SNS providers, and SNS users are drawn.

2014

Wirth, J., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Using a work system theory perspective to review 25 years of technology acceptance research: proposing a research agenda
Proceedings of the 2014 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
IT projects still often fail and do not generate the expected value due to the lack of user acceptance. From the point of view of the work system theory (WST) this might be grounded in the fact that in current technology acceptance research IT is treated as a technical artifact and not as part of a work system. Therefore, we set up a literature review to reflect 25 years of research since the introduction of its most prominent model to discuss in how far a work system theory perspective on technology acceptance research might help to explore possible research gaps. Our results reveal that the technology acceptance model (TAM) is still the predominant model in technology acceptance research and therefore the classic components of a work system namely participants, information and technology and the relation between these components have been researched very well. However, we found out that work practices and also the relation between work practices, participants, information and IT in relation to technology acceptance, which can have an influence on technology acceptance as well, have rather been neglected in current research. We also identified products/services and customers as potential drivers of user acceptance. We derive six propositions that can be further theorized and evaluated by technology acceptance research. Consequently, we conclude that a WST perspective on technology acceptance research is appropriate to discuss the acceptance of IT, which is part of a work system in which participants produce products or services for customers.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Why are they grumbling about my new system? Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence of employee grumbling as a user resistance behavior
Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
This research theorizes employee grumbling as a user resistance phenomenon observed during early information system (IS) implementation phases. When the usage of new IS is mandatory, user resistance cannot be observed when focusing technology usage, instead, employees protest against the IS implementation, or spoke rather negatively of it. This form of user resistance behavior is conceptualized by the newly proposed variable employee grumbling, which provides a different perspective on user resistance that can be used especially in early implementation phases to observe resistance behaviors. Perceived ease of use and usefulness, affective and cognitive resistance to change, and individual differences and basic tendencies are analyzed as antecedents based on study with 106 employees during an IS implementation. The results of the analysis reveal that especially affective resistance to change determine employee grumbling, and technology perceptions are less important in early implementation.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2014)
The Relationship between Psychological, Physiological, and Behavioral Strain towards Technostress
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2014)
Technostress-induced Skin Conductance Response Patterns and Performance
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Maier, C. and Laumer, S. (2014)
Technostress-induced distorted pre-adoption beliefs
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2014)
The impact of human resources information systems and business process management implementations on recruiting process performance: A case study
Proceedings of the 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Savannah (GA)

View Abstract
This research examines the effects of business process management (BPM) and information systems implementations in secondary service processes. Using a case study of BPM and human resources information systems (HRIS) in the recruiting context at a financial service provider it can be shown that BPM, defined as a structured systematic approach to analyze and continually improve a specific process, and HRIS provide positive effects in terms of cost reduction, increased cycle time, customer satisfaction, and improve quality for secondary service processes in organizations. The results contribute to IS research as they illustrate how combined BPM and IS can be implemented in secondary service processes and provide evidence for the positive effects of BPM and HRIS in this type of processes.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Does teleworking negatively influence IT professionals? An empirical analysis of IT personnel's telework-enabled stress
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Singapore

View Abstract
Despite the wide dissemination and acceptance of teleworking in the IT industry, companies like Yahoo!, HP, or Best Buy have stopped their telework programs, which indicates that there might also be some negative side effects in this type of work. In regard to this, our research focuses on one particular negative side of teleworking by focusing on teleworking-induced stress of IT professionals. We theorize that teleworking-induced stressors influence IT personnel's psychological and behavioral strain in the form of exhaustion due to teleworking and discontinuous intention towards teleworking. Results of an empirical online survey with 57 IT professionals validate these dependencies, which gives us the grounds to identify work overload, work-home conflict, information underload, and social isolation as influence factors of exhaustion due to teleworking. Further results reveal that discontinuous intentions towards teleworking is directly influenced by social isolation and exhaustion due to teleworking, whereas the influence of work overload is mediated by exhaustion due to teleworking. Work overload due to telework has the strongest effect on exhaustion due to teleworking, which in turn is the strongest influence factor on the discontinuous intention towards teleworking.

Weinert, C., von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., and Eckhardt, A. (2014)
Recruiting Trends 2014 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den 500 größten Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Transformation of People, Processes, and IT in E-Recruiting: Insights from an Eight-year Case Study of a German Media Corporation
Employee Relations (36:4), p. 415-431, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-07-2013-0079

View Abstract
Purpose - There is only scarce research about the transformation of e-HRM in general, and of the e-recruiting function in particular. Further, there is not much known of the transformational implications for the related people, process, and information technology (IT). Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the transformation of e-recruiting caused by external influences outside of the organization, we report the results of an eight-year case with a media corporation in order to derive and describe five consecutive steps of an e-recruiting transformation model. Findings - We come up with five stages (transformation of tools, transformation of systems, transformation of workflows, transformation of tasks, and transformation of communication), each influenced by external developments and market tendencies (War for Talent, increasing number of applications, job market switch, globalization of job market, changing communication behavior). Research limitations/implications - This research contributes to literature by explaining the drivers of an e-HRM transformation and the different stages of this transformation process differentiated by the affected people, processes and IT. However, it only observes the transformation in one company, hence the transformation of further e-HRM functions in other companies might differ. Practical implications - We highlight both the transformation of e-recruiting and for the related people, processes and IT, so companies could observe their current status of e-recruiting transformation. Originality/value - This paper represents the first longitudinal approach observing the transformation of e-recruiting by describing different stages and external influences.

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2014)
Recruiting Trends 2014 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Health Care, IT und Maschinenbau
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2014)
Bewerbungspraxis 2014 - Eine empirische Studie mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Illig, S., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Why IS after all? An Explorative Analysis of Professionals' Letters of Study Motivation
Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
While the selection of majors in Information Systems (IS) is widely discussed, the context of IS in further education lacks attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the motivational factors of individuals who intent to study IS, although they have already graduated in another degree program. Based on an explorative analysis of 84 letters of motivation of applicants applying for a further education degree program in IS, we identify determinants of an individual's motivation to study IS after all. Based on that, we conclude that extrinsic motivations such as expected career enhancement are more important than in other contexts such as undergraduate study paths.

2013

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and Eckhardt, A. (2013)
Recruiting Trends 2013 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den 500 größten Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise Content Management
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (5:6), p. 449-452, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12599-013-0291-3

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise-Content-Management
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (55:6), p. 453-456, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11576-013-0384-0

Buettner, R., Daxenberger, B., Eckhardt, A., and Maier, C. (2013)
Cognitive workload induced by Information Systems: Introducing an objective way of measuring based on pupillary diameter responses
Proceedings of the 13th Annual HCI/MIS Research Workshop (Pre-ICIS-Workshop), Milan, Italy
(Research in Progress)

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The influence of coping mechanisms on technostress
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Milan, Italy

View Abstract
This paper uses a laboratory experiment with perceptual and objective measures from skin conductance response to analyze the influence of different coping strategies on behavioral and psychological strain in the context of techostress. Thereby, behavioral strain is objectively observed in terms of task fulfillment and psychological strain by skin conductance response in four treatment groups, classified by receiving different coping strategies. Initial results of our research reveal that users with no-coping are strained more than those how utilized coping strategies during stressful situations. This also takes place subsequently to the IT-stressor, as the slope of the skin conductance level is negative when applying coping strategies. However, the first results of the SCR indicate that coping strategies have no influence on behavioral strain such as end-user performance. Furthermore, results of a MANOVA outline that the psychological strain level significantly differs between the treatment groups.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Although I am stressed, I still use IT! Theorizing the decisive impact of strain and addiction of social network site users in post-acceptance theory
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Milan, Italy
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
This paper examines the decisive roles of strain and addiction in post-acceptance behavior of social networking sites' users. Therefore, we focus in a first step on the formation of discontinuous usage intentions by theorizing strain, addiction, and satisfaction as direct influencing factor that causes and/or inhibits them. In a second step, the influence of these variables on the intention-behavior relation is focused. We theorize that addiction as well as the ratio between satisfaction and strain moderate whether users transfer discontinuous usage intentions into non-usage behavior. To validate the subsequent research model we propose a longitudinal research setting and present initial results, whereupon satisfaction and strain - but not addiction - causes discontinuous usage intentions. We discuss our expected contributions by revealing that satisfaction, strain, and addiction influence whether a technology is used continuously; however, their influence on intentions and actual behaviors differs.

Eckhardt, A., Maier, C., Hsieh, J.J., Chuk, T., Chan, A., Hsiao, J., and Buettner, R. (2013)
Objective measures of IS usage behavior under conditions of experience and pressure using eye fixation data
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Milan, Italy

View Abstract
The core objective of this study is to understand individuals IS usage by going beyond the traditional subjective self-reported and objective system-log measures to unveil the delicate process through which users interact with IS. In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to capture users' eye movement and, more importantly, applied a novel methodology that uses the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to analyze the gathered physiological data. We also examine how performance pressure and prior usage experience of the investigative system affect IS usage patterns. Our results suggest that experienced and pressured users demonstrate more efficient and focused usage patterns than inexperienced and non-pressured ones, respectively. Our findings constitute an important advancement in the IS use literature. The proposed statistical approach for analyzing eye-movement data is a critical methodological contribution to the emerging research that uses eye-tracking technology for investigation.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2013)
The Impact of Business Process Management and Applicant Tracking Systems on Recruiting Process Performance: A Representative Empirical Study with Germany's Top-1,000 Organizations
Proceedings of the 75th Wissenschaftlichen Jahrestagung des VHB, Würzburg

View Abstract
This research focuses on the various effects of different business process management components as well as the joint impact with information technology on process performance in the recruiting context. The results of a study with Germany's Top-1,000 organizations reveal that reduction of recruiting process costs is significantly determined by business process analyses, business process improvement and the usage of applicant tracking systems. An improved cycle time of the recruiting process is significantly influenced by business process controlling, business process analyses, and by using an applicant tracking system that supports the design and evaluation of key performance indicators. Business process standardization and a joint usage of applicant tracking systems and business process documentation as well as controlling has a significant positive impact on stakeholders' satisfaction with the recruiting process. The general quality of the process can be improved by business process controlling as well as a joint usage of applicant tracking systems and business process controlling. Hence, the results reveal that different components of the business process management in conjunction with a supporting applicant tracking system have diverse impacts on different dimensions of recruiting process performance. The results are discussed by focusing on the diverse effects of business process management on process performance and implications for information systems success research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2013)
Pinning Down the Sources of Burnout: The Role of Information Technology as Daily Stressor
Proceedings of the 75th Wissenschaftlichen Jahrestagung des VHB, Würzburg

View Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to pin down some of the sources of the burnout phenomenon in modern organizations. We provide a more detailed understanding of work and techno-stressors, work- and techno-exhaustion, as well as consequences and interrelations of and between these feelings and perceptions. Therefore, techno-stressors and techno-exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work-stressors, work-exhaustion, and outcome variables, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed model enables a comparison of whether technology or other work-stressors induce feelings of exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes in terms of low job satisfactions, low organizational commitments, and high turnover intentions. Based on an empirical analysis (n=306), the results of our study show that technologies are a contributing factor for employee burnout, because techno-stressors are a contributing factor for techno-exhaustion, which in turn influences work-exhaustion significantly. Results also reveal that work-exhaustion causes job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention, whereas techno-exhaustion has solely an indirect effect through work-exhaustion on these psychological and behavioral responses. Furthermore, post-hoc analyses identify that employees, who use IT as a supporting for their daily work process (non-IT professionals, such as recruiters), report higher levels of techno-exhaustion compared to employees, who consider IT as core of their work (IT professionals, such as software developers). These analyses also indicate that techno-exhaustion has a direct and indirect effect on job satisfactions, organizational commitment, and turnover intention for non-IT professionals.

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Effect of Coping Mechanisms on Technology Induced Stress: Towards a Conceptual Model
Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago (IL)

View Abstract
Information and communication technology induced stress, called technostress, influences users negatively. Numerous investigations are made about technostress; however, none consider the concept of coping in order to explain strategies to avoid these negative consequences. Therefore, this paper develops a theoretical model to explain the coping process and how it influences technostress. The model theorizes that threat and coping appraisal are major determinants of emotional- and problem-focused coping whereby coping resources and individual's controllability influence the choice and the efficacy of coping. The resulting problem- or emotional-focused coping strategies are theorized to moderate the stressor-train relationship such that negative consequences can be avoided. The theoretical model suggests a different perspective on the linear view on the relationship between stressors and strain by proposing the consideration of the moderation effect of coping.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
The negative side of ICT-enabled communication: the case of social interaction overload in online social networks
Proceedings of the 21th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Utrecht, The Netherlands

View Abstract
This research aims to explain the negative side of ICT-enabled communications. Therefore, the perception of users that social interactions on online social networks (OSN) are threatening is suggested as a new variable called social interaction overload. The paper theorizes that individual, OSN-specific, and OSN-specific communication characteristics manifest the extent to which social interaction overload is perceived and how users response to it in a psychological and behavioral manner. Results of an empirical survey with 246 OSN users validate the assumed effects, so that we identify age, number of friends, and communication content as contribution factors of social interaction overload, which in turn has a direct effect on the two outcome variables satisfaction and continuous usage intention. Moreover, results reveal that social interaction overload has higher effects on OSN users' satisfaction than perceived usefulness or perceived enjoyment.

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2013)
Recruiting Trends 2013 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Automotive, Finanzdienstleistung und IT
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2013)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2013 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Maier, C., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2013)
Bewerbungspraxis 2013 - Eine empirische Studie mit über 6.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Analyzing the impact of HRIS implementations on HR personnel's job satisfaction and turnover intention
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:3), p. 193-207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2012.09.001
One of the 5 most highly cited papers published in Journal of Strategic Information Systems

View Abstract
An in-depth case of an e-Recruiting system implementation is used while focusing on the level of Human Resource (HR) employees to research unintended consequences during the implementation of Human Resources Information Systems (HRISs). We develop a model that integrates the belief and attitude component of the technology acceptance literature with work-related consequences. We provide evidence for an indirect effect of attitudes toward the HRIS on turnover intention that is fully mediated by job satisfaction. Our results contribute to the literature on systems implementations and technology adoption by suggesting work-related outcomes as important additional success variables.

2012

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Role of Techno-Stressors and Techno-Exhaustion in Employees' Daily Work: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to provide a more detailed understanding of work and techno-stressors, work- and techno-exhaustion, as well as consequences of these feelings and perceptions. Therefore, techno-stressors and exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work stressors, work exhaustion, and outcome variables, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed theory enables a comparison of whether technology or other work stressors induce feelings of exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes. Based on an empirical analysis (N=306), the results of our study show that techno-stressors have an impact on work stressors and techno-exhaustion is a contributing factor for work exhaustion. Next, we can show that the effects are different for IT and non-IT professionals as techno-exhaustion have an effect on each outcome variable for non-IT professionals, but not for IT professionals. The influence of techno-stressors is mediated on each outcome variable through techno-exhaustion for non-IT professionals but not for IT professionals. Furthermore, techno-exhaustion is significantly higher for non-IT professionals, even if they use IT at work far less than IT professionals, and techno-exhaustion has a stronger influence on non-IT professionals' overall work exhaustion. We conclude that techno-stress research has to consider whether occupations use IT daily as core of their working process or solely as a supporting instrument in order to provide a detailed explanation for technologies inducing stress at work.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Online Social Networks as a Source and Symbol of Stress: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
This research examines the sources and consequences of stress when using online social networks (OSN). In a first step, the five OSN-induced stressors invasion, pattern, complexity, uncertainty, and disclosure are identified. In a second step, the Model of Continuous OSN Usage is developed in order to examine the influence of these five stressors. Therefore, the model is based on the Model of Adoption of Technology in Households and the Post-Acceptance Model. Results of an empirical analysis with 154 OSNs users reveal that 57 per cent of satisfaction and 64 per cent of continuous usage intention can be explained within the Model of Continuous OSN Usage. Notably, the five stressors have a higher strength of effect on satisfactions than the three attitudinal beliefs hedonic, utilitarian, and social outcomes altogether. In summary, the results offer a theoretical foundation for recent practical observations that OSNs are a source and symbol of stress.

Eckhardt, A., Maier, C., and Buettner, R. (2012)
The Influence of Pressure to Perform and Experience on Changing Perceptions and User Performance: A Multi-Method Experimental Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
To address shortcomings of predominately subjective measures in empirical IS research on IT usage and human-computer interaction, this paper uses a multi-method experimental analysis extending empirical surveying with objective measures from eye-tracking and electrodermal activity (EDA). In a three stage process, objective user performance is observed in terms of task fulfillment and user performing of participants in four focus groups, classified by user system experience and the treatment pressure to perform. Initial results of this research-in-progress reveal that users with prior system experience perform considerably better and faster than users without system experience. This also accounts for users under pressure to perform compared to users without pressure to perform. However, the results of the EDA show that users under pressure to perform also have a higher objective strain level. Furthermore, a first regression analysis outlines that objective performance might help to understand user's system satisfaction to a greater extent.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Using User Personality to explain the Intention-Behavior Gap and Changes in Beliefs: A Longitudinal Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
The research reported in this article intends to investigate whether individuals a) update degrees of beliefs over time and b) transfer behavioral intentions into adoption behavior in a different manner based on their personality. Therefore, the personality trait dispositional resistance is discussed within the Integrative Framework of Technology Use. Results of an empirical longitudinal analysis (N=145) show that individuals update their beliefs based on prior beliefs and usage behavior differently in accordance with their personality. Results also reveal that individuals transfer behavioral intentions into adoption behavior differently based on their personality. Hence, we discuss our contributions to technology adoption research by highlighting the importance of personality traits when investigating technology-related beliefs and behavior over time. Results also include an assessment of the findings' practical relevance by identifying which individuals maintain negative beliefs over time and by identifying the high extent of technology usage as a possibility for overcoming negative beliefs.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Empirical Evidence for an Individual's Dispositional Resistance to IT-Induced Changes
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

View Abstract
As information systems (IS) usage is the missing link from information technology (IT) investments to the business value impact of IT (DeLone and McLean 2003), it is a significant issue for IS researchers and practitioners, if individuals resist using these systems. Several recent models have been developed in order to offer insights which perceptual beliefs foster user resistance. Results reveal perceptual beliefs as perceived threats, technostress, or switching costs as major determinants for user resistance. Nevertheless, user resistance has not been researched from a perspective of predisposed individual differences so far. Consequently, this paper proposes the new construct dispositional resistance to IT-induced changes. This reflects inclinations to resist any kind of IT-related change and discusses resistance from the perspective of individual differences. Within this approach, it is theoretically hypothesized, how this inclination influences perceptual beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Empirical results reveal strong impacts of the newly proposed construct on technostress.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2012)
The Shady Side Of Facebook: The Influence Of Perceived Information And Network Characteristics On The Attitude Towards Information Overload
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

View Abstract
This research paper analyzes the impact of information and network characteristics on the affective, cognitive, and behavioral attitude towards information overload (IO) on Facebook. By using an information overload model and the data of 300 active Facebook users it can be shown that the various categories of attitude are influenced by different factors. The level of determination of the behavioral attitude towards IO is lower than the level of determination of the affective and cognitive attitude towards IO. The identified antecedents of IO explain up to 36 per cent of the variance of IO. Results indicate that affective and cognitive attitude towards IO are more influenced by these antecedents as the behavioral attitude towards IO. Furthermore, results reveal that the amount of information an individual receives is the major predictor of all three dimensions of attitude. Several implications for adoption research are discussed.

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and Ganouchi, M. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg et Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and Ganouchi, M. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den 500 größten Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C. (2012)
Personality Within Information Systems Research: A Literature Analysis
Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Barcelona, Spain

View Abstract
After integrating five higher-order personality traits in an extended model of technology acceptance, Devaraj et al. (2008) called for further research including personality in information systems research to understand the formation of perceptual beliefs and behaviors in more detail. To assist such future research endeavors, this article gives an overview on prior research discussing personality within the six plus two journals of the AIS Senior Basket (MISQ, ISR, JMIS, JAIS, EJIS, ISJ, JSIS, JIT). Therefore, the Theory of a Person approach (ToP) derived from psychology research serves as the underlying conceptual matrix. Within the literature analysis, we identify 30 articles discussing personality traits on distinct hierarchical levels in three fields of information systems research. Results of the literature analysis reveal a shift of examined traits over the last years. In addition, research gaps are identified so that propositions are derived. Further research results and implications are discussed within the article.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
When Social Networking Turns to Social Overload: Explaining the Stress, Emotional Exhaustion, and Quitting Behavior from Social Network Sites' Users
Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Barcelona, Spain
Best Paper Award Nominee

View Abstract
This research responds to a current phenomenon that individuals experience fatigue, while using social network sites, such as Facebook, which original intend to provide hedonic value to users. To explain this current phenomenon, we propose and evaluate a research model based on the stress-strain-outcome model. Focal point is the stressor social overload, which induces feelings of being emotional exhausted. For that reason, some users of social network sites start to get dissatisfied and report an increasing discontinuous usage intention. In addition, the research article provides evidence for the fact that the effect of stress on the two outcome variables satisfaction and discontinuous usage intention is fully mediated through strain. This is validated with an empirical survey with 523 Facebook users. Several implications for technology adoption research are discussed.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Are we in the Right Profession? - Comparing Information Systems, Computer Science and other Disciplines' Professional's Perceptions of the Job Market
Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Milwaukee (WI)

View Abstract
Based on an empirical analysis with 2,887 professionals with different educational backgrounds, this research shows that Information Systems and Computer Science professionals are more optimistic toward the labor market and available job alternatives than other disciplines such as General Business Management, Engineering, or Social and Humane Science. The results underline that professionals in the IT field have a bright future for their further career. In times of shrinking information systems and computer systems enrollments, this promising prospect can support both undergraduate and graduate schools activities to promote their courses. Several implications for this issue will be discussed in the paper.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Bewerbermanagementsysteme in deutschen Großunternehmen: Wertbeitrag von IKT für dienstleistungsproduzierende Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 47-75, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11573-012-0582-z

View Abstract
Zusammenfassung: In stürmischen Zeiten für die Personalbeschaffung deutscher Großunternehmen aufgrund von Fachkräftemangel können Beschaffungsmanagementsysteme zur Gewinnung neuer Mitarbeiter wertvolle Unterstützung für die Rekrutierung leisten. Zur Untersuchung des Wertbeitrages des automatisierten Aufgabenträgers dieser Systeme, der sogenannten Bewerbermanagementsysteme, wurden Personalverantwortliche der 1.000 größten Unternehmen in Deutschland befragt. Auf Basis der Ergebnisse dieser repräsentativen Umfrage konnten folgende Erkenntnisse für den Wertbeitrag von Bewerbermanagementsystemen als Teil dienstleistungsproduzierender Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme gewonnen werden. Durch den Einsatz dieser Systeme werden primär Zeitreduktionen innerhalb einzelner Prozessabschnitte der Personalbeschaffung und eine Kostenreduktion für die interne Bearbeitung von Bewerbungen erreicht. Eine Verbesserung der Qualität der eingestellten Wunschkandidaten kann hingegen nicht realisiert werden. Es bestehen keine Unterschiede beim Wertbeitrag für das unternehmerische Leistungs- und Lenkungssystem. Auch die Unternehmensgröße hat keinen Einfluss auf denWertbeitrag der Bewerbermanagementsysteme.

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Recruiting Trends - Ein Rückblick auf 10 Jahre
Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Health Care, IT sowie Umwelt & Recycling
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Bewerbungspraxis 2012 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2012 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Implementation of Large-scale Information Systems in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - A Case Study of Work-and Health-related Consequences
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
Using a case study of a financial service provider, this research provides a next step toward an answer to the question about the importance of an employee's attitude toward a newly introduced information system in light of a mandatory usage setting. Based on the Commitment to Change Model, the paper argues theoretically and provides case study evidence that negative attitudes toward new information systems influence work-related and health-related outcomes. The observed case indicates that a negative evaluation of a new financial information system leads to negative consequences such as decreased organizational commitment and overall job satisfaction as well as an increased turnover intention and a higher number of sick days. The results implicate that work- and health-related consequences are potential dependent variables for technology adoption research and that practitioners have to address these issues during the implementation of information systems in organizations.

2011

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Identifying Resistant User Groups during the Product Lifecycle of IT Innovations: Proposing a User Transformation Theory
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Shanghai, China

View Abstract
Motivated by the phenomenon of the digital divide, this research tries to identify resistant user groups in private household settings. Therefore, the concept of dispositional resistance widely studied in psychology, which reflects individuals' predisposition to check out something new, is transferred into information systems research. With the help of this trait, we investigate the groups within the diffusion of innovation theory, and try to identify resistant user groups. Surprisingly, the results do indicate that individuals, who are regarded as innovators, are not less resistant than others. We discuss reasons for this finding like the non-consideration of the point in time to which an individual gets aware of an innovation, or the speed to which an individual decides using an innovation. Based on these reasons, we develop a user transformation theory which clusters users and non-users of a technology in a completely new manner, as we differ between spontaneous and deliberate, as well as aware and unaware non-user. With data of 3,262 individuals, we empirically confirm that these groups differ concerning their dispositional resistance. Our research emphasizes the importance for future research to focus on these resistant user groups and their potential digital divide from society. Potential benefits of these new user group clusters are discussed.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Is Facebook Usage Becoming Stressful? Proposing and Validating a Theory of Stress-induced ICT Discontinuous Usage
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Shanghai, China

View Abstract
Our research responds to an actual phenomenon that individuals experience fatigue while using popular social networking platforms as Facebook. Based on the stress-strain-outcome model, a theory of stress-induced ICT discontinuous usage is proposed to explain this phenomenon. The theory focuses on ICT-induced stress in voluntary usage settings in the household context. The theory provides an extended understanding of stress, as it focuses besides techno-stress on information, interaction, and social overload. The theory argues that an individual's perceived stress in terms of these four stress dimensions is a contributing factor for strain (e.g. emotional exhaustion), which in turn influences one's satisfaction with a technology and the corresponding usage behavior. As technology usage in households is predominately voluntary, we suggest discontinuous usage intention as new dependent variable to capture the phenomenon observed that individuals decrease usage intensity and to respond to current calls for understanding user resistance in a more appropriate way. Consequently, the paper explains how different dimensions of perceived stress mediated by strain influence an individual's resistance behavior. The proposed theory is validated with the help of an empirical study (n=523). Several implications for IT adoption research are discussed.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Technology Adoption by Elderly People - An Empirical Analysis of Adopters and Non-Adopters of Social Networking Sites
In: Heinzl, A., Buxmann, P., Wendt, O., and Weitzel, T. (eds.): Theory-Guided Modeling and Empiricism in Information Systems Research, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg, 85-110. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Theory-Guided-Modeling-Empiricism-Information-Research/dp/3790827800/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1317916027&sr=8-1

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Maier, C. (2011)
Introducing a First Step towards a Holistic Talent Management System Architecture
In: Scupola, A. (ed.): Developing Technologies in E-Services, Self-Services, and Mobile Communication: New Concepts, IGI Global, Hershey (PA), Book Online: http://www.igi-global.com/bookstore/titledetails.aspx?titleid=47049; Chapter Online: http://www.igi-global.com/bookstore/chapter.aspx?titleid=54968

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Dispositional Resistance to Change and Social Network Site Adopters' and Non-Adopters' Attitudinal Beliefs - An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, Finland

View Abstract
Using the Model of Adoption of Technology in Households (MATH) (Venkatesh and Brown 2001, Brown and Venkatesh 2005), this research investigates the impact of dispositional resistance to change on Social Network Site (SNS) adopters' and non-adopters' attitudinal beliefs in order to explain, why individuals resist using Facebook. Therefore, the study is based on psychology research and adapts a personality perspective to explain user resistance. Dispositional resistance captures an individual's inclination to react to change with resistance and is based on four dimensions named routine seeking, short-term focus, emotional reaction, and cognitive rigidity (Oreg 2003). By conducting an empirical study, the influences of the four resistance dimensions on individuals' attitudinal beliefs are analyzed within the MATH. The influence is investigated for adopters, actual non-adopters and long-term non-adopters in a separate way. The results indicate significant relations between the dispositional resistance to change and individuals' attitudinal beliefs, which vary for the analyzed groups. The same holds true for the R², as the four resistance dimensions explain up to 54 percent of the variance of individuals' attitudinal beliefs.

Maier, C. (2011)
Explaining the Influence of User Personality on the Evaluation of IT Usage Drivers and IT Usage Consequences
Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, San Antonio (TX)

View Abstract
This proposal pursues the goal to combine personality and IT usage behavior. Therefore, a psychological theory - which is named Five-Factor Theory of Personality - is applied to offer a theoretical framework for the interaction between personality and typical adoption theories or models (as TAM, UTAUT, etc.). The insights should help to gain insights of the impact of personality on IT usage, IT usage drivers and IT usage consequences in different IS research fields. The proposal focuses on IT (non-)usage behavior and IT diffusion, but should also offer valuable insights for IT management research as IT outsourcing decisions or how to handle employees.

Lang, S., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Drivers, Challenges and Consequences of E-Recruiting - A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, San Antonio (TX)

View Abstract
Using a literature review of 80 journals and proceedings we identified 23 research papers discussing driver, challenges and consequences of e-recruiting. In total 14 drivers, 15 challenges and 9 consequences of implementing and using e-recruiting has been identified. Based on these results the paper introduced a model of drivers, challenges and consequences of e-recruiting and discusses implications for research and practice. The analysis reveals that e-recruiting will reduce costs for recruitment and selection, increase the number of suitable applicants, enable time savings for both organizations and applicants and improve the corporate image. These four consequences also have been identified as major drivers of e-recruiting projects. The identified challenges include the exclusion of potential applicants, the deception of applicants in e-assessment procedures, the security of applicants' data and low qualification of applicants.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Trend is our Friend - German IT Personnel's Perception of Job-related Factors before, during and after the Economic Downturn
Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, San Antonio (TX), Winner of the ACM SIGMIS Magid Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper of the Year 2011 Award
Winner of the ACM SIGMIS Magit Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper of the Year 2011 Award

View Abstract
With the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers the global economic crisis has reached one of its summits. Before that time CIOs challenged high turnover rates of IT personnel and recruiting, developing and retaining the IT workforce was one of the most important concerns of CIOs. However, the global economic development has changed on the one side the challenges of organizations, and on the other side also the perception of job-related factors of IT talent. Based on this development we compare major IT turnover constructs using three empirical surveys in 2008, 2009 and 2010 in order to discuss how the global economic development influences the perceptions of job-related factors and turnover intentions of German IT personnel. The analysis showed that job satisfaction and organizational commitment is decreasing since 2008, perceived job alternatives are increasing compared to 2009 and turnover intention has reached a maximum in 2010 compared to the two other years in question.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Technology Adoption by Elderly People - An Empirical Analysis of Adopters and Non-Adopters of Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the 10. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Zürich, Schweiz

2010

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2010)
Why do they resist? - An empirical analysis of an individual's personality trait resistance regarding the adoption of new information systems
Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Pretoria, South Africa

2009

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
Towards an Understanding of an Individual's Resistance to Use an IS - Empirical Examinations and Directions for Future Research
Proceedings of the 2009 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Phoenix (AZ)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
An Integrated IT-Architecture for Talent Management and Recruitment
Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS), Milan, Italy