Publications by Dr. Janina Kettenbohrer

Journal Articles (Peer Reviewed)

Leyer, M., Strohhecker, J., and Kettenbohrer, J. (2020)
This analytics tool looks nice, but… I am still happy without it
Forthcoming in: Journal of Service Management Research

Conference Articles (Peer Reviewed)

Leyer, M., Beimborn, D., and Kettenbohrer, J. (2018)
Will Users of Process Management Systems Be More Innovative? A Study on Process Innovation and Process Orientation in the Financial Industry
Proceedings of the ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Buffalo - Niagara Falls, USA

View Abstract
How can the involvement of employees in process innovation be supported and fostered? In this study, we investigate how the use of business process management systems - tools to design, visualize and document business processes - leads to employees (= users) become more process oriented and thus get engaged in process innovation. Using data from a large-scale survey with 171 participants from the financial industry, we show that BPM system usage mainly drives users' involvement in process innovation implementation and championing but less in the true idea generation. Thus, our study contributes to the IT benefits literature in shifting the focus to individual use and 'softer', but yet highly important outcome dimensions (process innovation).

Kettenbohrer, J., Beimborn, D., and Leyer, M. (2016)
Examining the Impact of Business Process Management System Use on Employees' Process Orientation
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
Many companies aim to switch from a function towards a process orientation, as the latter provides many benefits for organizations. However, many of these projects fail because of a missing process-oriented mindset among employees. To create the relevant mindset and foster process-oriented thinking, organizations can apply several learning modes. Another promising approach is the use of a business process management (BPM) system to gain a process orientation among employees. Our study aims to examine the role of a BPM system along with job construals (a high perception of embeddedness of their own tasks in the overall process) as a mediator regarding the process orientation of employees. We use data from a survey of 1,170 employees of a multinational company to show that the use of a BPM system as well as job construals has a significant positive effect on employees' process orientation.

Kettenbohrer, J., Kloppenburg, M., and Beimborn, D. (2016)
The Effect of Process Ownership Assignment on Business Process Standardization Success
Proceedings of the 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Diego (CA)
(Research in Progress)

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Many organizations aim to standardize their processes to increase performance. Organizational governance is an important driver for successful business process standardization. A central role within this governance structure is performed by the process owner who is responsible for the definition of processes. In this paper, the effect of different possible configurations of assigning process ownership in an existing organizational multi-level hierarchical structure is analyzed by conducting an embedded case study. The most important finding was that in most cases process ownership was assigned to a person who was already line manager for a single business unit which was responsible for executing a part of or the whole process. Thus, responsibility for the process itself and for the required resources (e.g., personnel) was combined. Based on these findings, we plan to conduct a study to analyze the impact of the different process ownership assignments on the success of process standardization.

Kettenbohrer, J. (2016)
A Literature-Based Analysis of People's Roles in Business Process Management
Proceedings of the 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Diego (CA)

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A lot of organizations strive for process orientation to increase their performance. The change from func-tion orientation towards process orientation is a huge project which considers changes in organizational structures but also used information technologies. But many companies struggle by implementing and operating processes successfully. In the last years, culture has examined extensively to be one of the drivers for successful process management. In this context, people have been identified as an important factor for the success of process initiatives. Despite their relevance, only scarce research deals with people as a distinct and fundamental factor in process management as well as in the overall project to achieve process orientation. Goal of this paper is to analyze the different roles of people in process management. Therefore, a literature review is conducted to provide an overview of existing research.

Kettenbohrer, J., Beimborn, D., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Examining the Influence of Perceived Job Characteristics on Employees' Process Orientation
Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Istanbul, Turkey

View Abstract
A lot of companies struggle by shifting the focus from function orientation to process orientation, especially due to missing process-oriented thinking and behavior of their employees. While, enhancing employees' knowledge about processes by training and empowerment has been considered as the sole adjusting screw to influence process orientation, the characteristics of the jobs, in which the employees work, were not considered in the same extent. As the daily job and its related characteristics represent the core of individuals' working life, we examine in our paper how these perceived job characteristics influence employees' process orientation. Therefore, we develop a research model on the influence of five job characteristics - autonomy, feedback, skill variety, task identity, task significance - on employees' process orientation and evaluate the model by using data from a field survey with 191 employees of a global service company of the aviation industry. The results depict that autonomy, feedback and task significance are all significant predictors for individuals' process orientation. By considering job characteristics, organizations can successfully shift from function orientation towards process orientation.

Kettenbohrer, J. and Beimborn, D. (2015)
Investigating the Role of Inertia in Business Process Standardization Initiatives
Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Fort Worth, USA
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Business process standardization (BPS) is an important instrument for transforming an organization from function orientation to process orientation. But, standardization initiatives' implementation success is highly volatile. One major reason for failure is the behavior and the underlying job-related attitude of the affected employees. Recent research examining BPS implementation success proposes that different factors of employees' current jobs (e.g., job characteristics) influence employees' acceptance of BPS-induced changes. Besides these motivational aspects, IS research has shown that non-adoption of a system is influenced by inertia of the employees. Our research-in-progress paper draws on these findings and aims to analyze the role of inertia in the context of BPS. The contribution of this paper lies in developing a theoretical model for understanding the determinants of individual inertia in the context of BPS. By knowing the influential factors, we will be able to derive adjustable screws for practitioners to successfully implement process standardization initiatives.

Kloppenburg, M., Kettenbohrer, J., Beimborn, D., and Bögle, M. (2015)
Leading 20,000+ employees by a process-oriented management system - insights to process management at Lufthansa Technik Group
Proceedings of the 13th Business Process Management Workshops (used to be: Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Process Management (BPM)), Innsbruck, Austria
Best Industry Paper

View Abstract
As technical division of the Lufthansa Group, Lufthansa Technik and its 30 subsidiaries have to fulfill a wide variety of legislative and normative requirements. To demonstrate and ensure compliance with these requirements, Lufthansa Technik introduced the process-oriented integrated management system IQ MOVE and modeled a wide range of its processes in a plain and simple to understand methodology. Primary target group of the system are the employees who shall find all relevant procedures quickly and easily. To achieve this vision, the system is designed to increase involvement of all relevant roles (i.e., process owners, process architects, process managers, employees, and process modelers) into the creation of the content. A complementary governance model, the Framework for Assignment of Responsibilities (FAR+), enables a clear assignment of process management tasks and thus helps trengthen process management abilities and sustainability of their implementation. Based on IQ MOVE, Lufthansa Technik is able to facilitate process standardization and to lead 20,000+ employees around the world in a process-oriented way.

Kettenbohrer, J., Fischer, D., Beimborn, D., and Kloppenburg, M. (2015)
How Social Software Can Support Business Process Management - Developing a Framework
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the 21th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Puerto Rico

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Solving complex tasks by collaborative teams is an important organizational capability. Beside traditional team work, an organization's collective intelligence can be supported by social software technologies. Within business process management (BPM), social software can be used to support the different lifecycle steps of a business process. In this paper, we introduce a framework which shows possible opportunities for social software to contribute to effective BPM. An expert workshop was conducted to receive a first evaluation of the framework. The combination of social software and BPM is supposed to improve the functional performance of IT systems for BPM and the employees' acceptance for BPM systems.

Kettenbohrer, J. (2015)
The Human Side of Business Process Standardization
Proceedings of the 2015 Doctoral Consortium WI, Würzburg

Kettenbohrer, J., Beimborn, D., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
Analyzing the impact of job characteristics on employees' acceptance of process standardization
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Münster

View Abstract
Business Process Standardization (BPS) leads to significant changes in employees' working environment which affect acceptance for such initiatives. Organizational psychology and management research have examined the influence of work design on employee behavior (e.g., turnover). Based on that, we develop a model to analyze the impact of job characteristics, such as skill variety, autonomy, or task significance, on BPS acceptance. We surveyed employees of a non-profit organization during a process standardization initiative. As main contribution, this research shows that skill variety is the most important job characteristic for determining BPS acceptance.

Kettenbohrer, J., Eckhardt, A., and Beimborn, D. (2015)
A Theoretical Perspective on Meaningfulness of Work and the Success of Business Process Standardization Initiatives
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Osnabrück

View Abstract
Business Process Standardization (BPS) leads to organizational changes, which are often faced with employee resistance. To make BPS initiatives successful, the 'human resource' has to be taken into consideration and with it, the job process fulfilled by them, their needs, and their work environment. The objective of this research is to analyze the role of employees affected by BPS initiatives and their perceptions of their work they are doing as part of the processes to be standardized. Based on job characteristics theory and the work-role fit concept, we develop a research model theorizing the role of these concepts for the acceptance of BPS initiatives. As main theoretical contribution, this research explains how employees' job-related attitudes toward their own work and the collaborations with others determine their (non-)openness towards BPS initiatives, while it will also guide managers in incorporating the 'right' people into a BPS project.

Kettenbohrer, J. and Beimborn, D. (2014)
What You Can Do to Inhibit Business Process Standardization
Proceedings of the 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Savannah (GA)
(Research in Progress)

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Business process standardization (BPS) has recently got into focus of the BPM literature as a methodology to substantially enable efficiency potentials and therefore improve process performance. So far, the BPS literature has exclusively focused on success factors for BPS and relevant capabilities. By contrast, inhibiting factors have not been sufficiently considered, yet, but success factors respectively enablers and inhibitors are not simply the opposites. The objective of this paper is to identify factors which inhibit BPS and to deduce management actions which help successfully standardize processes. To answer this question, we study the case of an international process standardization project in a global maintenance company. We derive a set of inhibiting factors for BPS. Thereby, some of these inhibitors have to be considered for any organizational change project while others are BPS specific. The specific inhibitors are analyzed in detail and discussed by mirroring them to non-BP standardization research.

Kettenbohrer, J., Beimborn, D., and Kloppenburg, M. (2013)
Developing a Procedure Model for Business Process Standardization
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Milan, Italy
(Research in Progress)

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Firms are focusing more closely on standardizing or homogenizing instances of a particular business process across different business units or locations. Our paper introduces research in progress on a business process standardization (BPS) procedure model that guides firms in conducting effective BPS firm-wide. This model is currently being developed and tested by applying it to a business process at Lufthansa Technik, following a design science cycle and taking an action research approach. This paper shows how we are following the good-practice guidelines of design science and how we intend to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of the model. Eventually, we expect this model to contribute significantly to extant research on BPS, which has to date focused on the outcomes of BPS and on the contingencies of BPS effectiveness rather than making prescriptive suggestions for reaping substantial process efficiency gains in large and decentralized firms.

Kettenbohrer, J., Beimborn, D., and Kloppenburg, M. (2013)
Developing a Governance Model for Successful Business Process Standardization
Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago (IL)

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Standardization of business processes is considered as one of the most important instruments in the context of BPM. Research has mostly focused on the impact of business process standardization on business process performance while only a few attempts have been made to determine the success factors for effective process standardization, yet. However, a major issue in any standardization initiatives is to convince decision makers to follow the standard. This is particular true when it comes to process standardization: how can a firm be sure that its different divisions have implemented the process standard and that the employees adhere to the rules? In this paper, we propose a governance model that consists of a role concept for successful process standardization and provide first steps of evaluation through a qualitative case study with an international aviation company.

Book Chapters

Kloppenburg, M., Kettenbohrer, J., Beimborn, D., and Bögle, M. (2018)
Leading 20,000+ Employees with a Process-Oriented Management System: Insights into Process Management at Lufthansa Technik Group
vom Brocke J., Mendling J. (eds) Business Process Management Cases. Management for Professionals. Springer, Cham: p.505-520

Kettenbohrer, J., Kloppenburg, M., and Beimborn, D. (2015)
Driving Process Innovation: The Application of a Role-Based Governance Model at Lufthansa Technik
In: vom Brocke, J.; Schmiedel, S. (eds.) (2015): BPM - Driving Innovation in a Digital World, Management for Professionals; Springer International Publishing Switzerland: p.275-286

View Abstract
Many stakeholders are involved in process operation and, consequently, also in process improvement and innovation. For the coordination of all stakeholders, an effective governance model with clearly defined roles and tasks can support process-oriented decision-making, which drives improvement and innovation. In this chapter, such a Business Process Management governance model is introduced. The role-based model FAR+ (Framework for Assignment of Responsibilities) provides precise assignment of process accountabilities and responsibilities. In the following, we apply FAR+ to an exemplary process at Lufthansa Technik. Based on this application, we derive implications for research and practice.