Publications by Prof. Dr. Sven Laumer

Journal Articles (Peer Reviewed)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Joseph, D., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Turnback Intention: An Analysis of the Drivers of IT Professionals’ Intention to Return to a Former Employer
Forthcoming in: Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ)

View Abstract
Recent statistics indicate that most organizations prefer to fill IT vacancies by rehiring an IT professional who had previously worked in the organization. Less is known about what drives IT professionals to “turnback,” a term we define as returning to working for a former employer. To explain this important and rarely considered IT job mobility behavior, we build on job embeddedness theory and on the concepts of shocks and job dissatisfaction from, among others, the unfolding model of voluntary turnover to develop the theory of IT professional turnback. We perform fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of data collected from 248 IT professionals to draw conclusions about the intentions among IT professionals to return to work for a former employer, and develop a mid-range theory. Our results reveal two configurations contributing to high turnback intentions and three configurations contributing to low turnback intentions. Our model distinguishes between work shocks, personal shocks, and IT work shocks. IT shocks are a new category of shocks specific to the IT profession. We contribute theoretically by theorizing a behavior relevant to IT professionals and explaining attributes contributing to turnback intention.

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Human resource management and its impact on strategic business-IT alignment: A literature review and avenues for future research
Forthcoming in: The Journal of Strategic Information Systems

View Abstract
From an information systems perspective, organizations striving to leverage a strategic alignment between Information Technology (IT) and business areas often underestimate the role of human resource management in creating business value. This literature review analyzes 71 scholarly articles to assess the role of human resource management in supporting the strategic alignment between business and IT. We identify the organizational role of individual human resources in strategic alignment, their contribution to more effective strategic alignment, and how human resource management supports such contribution. Based on these insights, we formulate propositions and identify avenues for future research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Thatcher, J.B., Sun, H., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Social Networking Site Use Resumption: A Model of Return Migration
Forthcoming in: Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS) , , https://www.uni-bamberg.de/isdl/veroeffentlichungen/preprint-manuskripte/

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
IT Management and Change at an Energy Firm: A Teaching Case on Strategic Alignment and Business Process Management
Journal of Information Technology Teaching Cases (JITTC) , , https://doi.org/10.1177/2043886920935897

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This teaching case illustrates how important concepts and tools of IS management practice and literature are used in a young firm, challenged by strong growth and the need to integrate business processes and IT systems. The case is typical of many smaller organizations that are substantially different from large firms. Among others, the firm does not have a dedicated IT unit. As most of our IT management knowledge stems from research in large companies, the teaching case demonstrates and combines many proven IT management methods, and how they can be applied in smaller firms as well. Students will learn about strategic alignment, business process management, work system theory, business process management, and notation, and user resistance during IT-induced change projects in small- and medium-sized organizations.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Technostress mitigation: an experimental study of social support during a computer freeze
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (90:8), p.1199-1249, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11573-020-00986-y

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In situations when Information Systems (IS) do not work as intended, using IS might hinder their users and let them perceive technostress; this then comes along with reduced user performance and high perceptions of exhaustion, among others. To alleviate these consequences, a mitigating behavior of stressed users is to seek social support to get instrumental (e.g., from the help desk) or emotional (e.g., consolation) backing. Using insights from psychology literature that suggest social support reduces the consequences of stressors, this paper investigates how instrumental and emotional support reduces the consequences of techno-stressors, such as reduced end-user performance, techno-exhaustion, and physiological arousal, caused by techno-unreliability such as a computer freeze. In a laboratory setting, measurements of skin conductance were used to evaluate the technostress of 73 subjects, manipulated by techno-unreliability and then treated with instrumental and emotional support. The findings indicate that social support increased end-user performance as well as reduced techno-exhaustion and physiological arousal. In particular, instrumental support directly influenced end-user performance, techno-exhaustion, and physiological arousal, whereas emotional support only influenced techno-exhaustion. Further, this study provides the first indications that the effect of social support on technostress depends on individual differences.

Tarafdar, M., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Explaining the link between technostress and technology addiction for social networking sites: A study of distraction as a coping behavior
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) 30:1, 96-124, https://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12253

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This paper investigates under what conditions stress from the use of SNS is linked to addiction to the use of the same SNS. Integrating three theoretical strands-the concept of feature‐rich Information Technology (IT), the theory of technology frames, and distraction as a coping behaviour-we theorize two types of coping behaviours in response to stressors experienced from the use of SNS. These are ‐ distraction through use of the same SNS and distraction through activities outside the use of the SNS. We hypothesize relationships between stressors from SNS use, the two coping behaviours and SNS addiction. We further articulate the role of SNS use habit. We test the hypotheses through a three‐wave survey of 444 Facebook users with data collected at three different points in time. The paper's contributions are to theorize and empirically validate the psychological concept of distraction as a coping behaviour in response to stress from the use of SNS and, in doing so, explain why there may be a link between technostress from and technology addiction to the use of the same SNS.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
IS Reappraisal and Technology Adaptation Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study During an IS Implementation
ACM SIGMIS Database (51:4), p.11-39, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3433148.3433151

View Abstract
Employees have to adapt to newly implemented information systems (IS) because they are often perceived as radical changes or disruptions. To understand such adaptation behavior, IS research suggests that employees first appraise the new IS and second perform technology adaptive behaviors. However, while the psychology literature indicates that adaptation is a continuous process unfolding over time, previous IS literature treats adaptation towards IS implementation as a rather singular, noniterative process. As firms continue to implement IS, an understanding of reappraisal and the influence of technology adaptation behavior is vital to ensure successful implementations. Therefore, the present paper investigates reappraisal and the influences of four different technology adaptation behaviors. We conducted a longitudinal study and used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to validate our research model. The findings reveal that employees reappraise the newly implemented IS over time regarding perceived opportunity, threat, and controllability and demonstrate that technology adaption behaviors influence such reappraisal. One specific finding is that employees might get into positive or negative reappraisal loops. We thereby contribute to research by extending the adaptation behavior literature and add a new piece of the puzzle to understand how employees adapt towards newly implemented IS over time.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Technostress and the hierarchical levels of personality: a two-wave study with multiple data samples
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 28:5, 496-522, https://doi.org/10.1080/0960085X.2019.1614739

View Abstract
Even though IS use has numerous benefits for users and organisations, such as improved user performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience technostress. Since technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads users to perceive it. Recent technostress research points to the relationship between personality traits and the perception of technostress as a research gap. Given that personality traits are structured hierarchically, we study how and which levels of user personality influence the perception of technostress. In developing our research model, we select personality traits from the three hierarchical levels of personality: neuroticism, personal innovativeness in IT (PIIT), and IT mindfulness. The results of 2 two-wave studies analysing data collected in an organisational setting (sample 1) and through mTurk (sample 2) reveal that all three personality traits influence the perception of technostress, with IT mindfulness having the strongest impact. This study contributes by revealing that user personality and, primarily, IT mindfulness influence the perception of technostress. Additionally, our findings reveal an inverted u-curved influence of techno-stressors on user performance, deepening our understanding of how the perception of technostress influences user reactions.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Perceived information sensitivity and interdependent privacy protection: a quantitative study
Electronic Markets (em) 29:3, p.359-378, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-019-00335-0

View Abstract
From a theoretical point of view, previous research has considered information sensitivity in terms of potential negative consequences for someone who has disclosed information to others and that information becomes public. However, making information public could also have negative consequences for other individuals as well. In this study, we extend the concept of information sensitivity to include negative consequences for other individuals and apply it in a quantitative research study. The results prove that the extended concept of information sensitivity leads to a better understanding of privacy-related concepts especially in an interdependent privacy setting. We contribute to theory by defining the extended concept of information sensitivity and by drawing conclusions on how to use it in future privacy research studies.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Information quality, user satisfaction, and the manifestation of workarounds: a qualitative and quantitative study of enterprise content management system users
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (26:4), 333-360, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41303-016-0029-7

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In this paper, we focus on a critical aspect of work in organizations: using information in work tasks which is provided by information systems (IS) such as enterprise content management (ECM) systems. Our study based on the IS success model, 34 interviews, and an empirical study of 247 ECM system users at a financial service provider indicates that it is appropriate to differentiate between contextual and representational information quality as two information quality dimensions. Furthermore, we reveal that in addition to system quality, the two information quality dimensions are important in determining end-user satisfaction, which in turn influences the manifestation of workarounds. Our study also finds that employees using workarounds to avoid an ECM system implemented several years is negatively related to individual net benefits of the ECM system. Hence, we conclude that when investigating large-scale IS such as ECM systems, it is important to differentiate among information quality dimensions to more deeply understand end-user satisfaction and the resulting manifestation of workarounds. Moreover, this research guides organizations in implementing the most appropriate countermeasures based on the importance of either contextual or representational information quality.

Shareef, M., Dwivedi, Y.K., Laumer, S., and Archer, N. (2016)
Citizens' Adoption Behavior of Mobile Government (mGov): A Cross-Cultural Study
Information Systems Management 33:3, 268-283, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10580530.2016.1188573

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This study aims to address the paradigms of consumers' adoption behavior for mobile government, posits the factors which pursue citizens' intention to adopt mobile government services, and reveals the impact of cultural dimensions in perceiving driving factors of mobile government adoption. The mobile government adoption model was developed and tested among users of three different countries, namely Bangladesh, Canada, and Germany. The finding suggests the rationale that cross-cultural differences impact consumers' perception of mobile government adoption behavior.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Work routines as an object of resistance during information systems implementations: Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 25:4, pp.317-343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2016.1

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When implementing new information systems, organizations often face resistance behavior from employees who avoid or underutilize the system. We analyze the extent to which such user resistance behavior is explained by users' perceptions of the technology compared with their perceptions of work routines. We developed a research model based on work system theory and evaluated it using a study (N=106) of a human resources information system (HRIS) implementation in one organization. The results show that work routines are an object of resistance during IS implementations. We identify perceived usefulness and perceived ease of executing work routines as perceptions of work routines during an IS implementation that have a strong influence on user resistance behavior. Additionally, our results show that the perceived ease of executing the work routines mediates the impact of perceived ease of use on user resistance behavior. In practice, our findings imply that interventions during IT implementations should focus on both the new technology and changing work routines.

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
On the Untapped Value of IT in HRM - a Literature Review
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) 38:2, , http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol38/iss1/2

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The "war for talent" is still on. Annually conducted surveys have indicated for years that one third of all organizations are unable to fill vacant job positions with suitable candidates. Responding to these and other challenges, human resource management (HRM) is expected to transform itself. General opinion holds that the HRM transformation has just begun and that the potential of IT in HRM is not yet fully exploited. Examining the value potential of IT in HRM, existing IS research predominately studies the impact of IT on HRM. We contribute by examining the reverse impact in three steps. First, we use Thompson's theory of organizations in action to examine the expected impact of the HRM transformation on IT ("to-be" situation). Second, we use Kohli and Grover's IT value typology and review 20 years of the publication history ("as-is" situation). Finally, we relate expectations to actual review findings. We find that the HRM transformation should lead to a major shift in technology type used in organizations. However, this shift is not recognized yet, which is why our literature review reveals considerable unaddressed value potential of IT in HRM. We finish the paper by outlining IS research avenues in the context of HRM.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
User Personality and Resistance to Mandatory Information Systems in Organizations: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Test of Dispositional Resistance to Change
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 67-82, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2015.17

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This research is driven by the assumption made in several user resistance studies that employees are generally resistant to change. It investigates the extent to which employees' resistance to IT-induced change is caused by individuals' predisposition to resist change. We develop a model of user resistance that assumes the influence of dispositional resistance to change on perceptual resistance to change, perceived ease of use, and usefulness, which in turn influence user resistance behavior. Using an empirical study of 106 HR employees forced to use a new human resources information system, the analysis reveals that 17.0 to 22.1 percent of the variance in perceived ease of use, usefulness, and perceptual resistance to change can be explained by the dispositional inclination to change initiatives. The four dimensions of dispositional resistance to change - routine seeking, emotional reaction, short-term focus and cognitive rigidity - have an even stronger effect than other common individual variables, such as age, gender, or working experiences. We conclude that dispositional resistance to change is an example of an individual difference that is instrumental in explaining a large proportion of the variance in beliefs about and user resistance to mandatory IS in organizations, which has implications for theory, practice, and future research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Effects of Technostress and Switching-stress on Discontinued Use of Social Networking Services: A Study of Facebook Use
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) (25:3), p. 275-308, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/isj.12068

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Although much research has been done on the adoption and usage phases of the IS life cycle, the final phase, termination, has received little attention. This paper focuses on the development of discontinuous usage intentions, i.e. the behavioral intention in the termination phase, in the context of social networking services (SNSs), where it plays an especially crucial role. We argue that users stressed by using SNSs try to avoid the stress and develop discontinuous usage intentions, which we identify as a behavioral response to SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion. Furthermore, as discontinuing the use of an SNS also takes effort and has costs, we theorize that switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce discontinuous usage intentions. We tested and validated these effects empirically in an experimental setting monitoring individuals who stopped using Facebook for a certain time period and switched to alternatives. Our results show that SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion cause discontinuous usage intentions, and switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce these intentions.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Who really quits? A longitudinal analysis of voluntary turnover among IT personnel
ACM SIGMIS Database 46:4, p. 26-47, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2843824.2843827

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In response to high turnover rates among IT personnel compared to other groups of professionals, IS research has focused on factors contributing to IT personnel's turnover intention; however, only few studies have focused on actual turnover. To shed more light on actual turnover behavior, this longitudinal study of 125 IT personnel theorizes and analyzes the influence of job-related beliefs on turnover intention and behavior over time. Our results confirm a previously documented turnover intention-behavior gap, finding that 91 out of 125 survey participants indicate a high turnover intention, but that only 27 reported actual turnover behavior within the following 12 months. We further theorize this turnover intention-behavior gap by identifying IT personnel's personality as an important moderating variable for this relation. Specifically, IT personnel more disposed to resisting change translate turnover intentions into actual turnover behavior more seldom than IT personnel less disposed to resisting change. Our study also focuses on how personality influences changes in IT personnel's job-related beliefs and whether or not actual turnover behavior has a positive influence on these beliefs. Our results show that more change-resistant IT personnel change their degrees of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more seldom than less change-resistant personnel and that IT personnel who quit their job change their degree of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more frequently. Our results also show that intentions are a more suitable predictor for less change-resistant individuals than for change-resistant ones.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
The impact of business process management and applicant tracking systems on recruiting process performance: An empirical study
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p.421-453, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s11573-014-0758-9

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This research focuses on the effects of different business process management components in combination with information technology on recruiting process performance. The results of a study of Germany's largest 1,000 business enterprises (response rate 13.1 percent) reveal that business process analysis, business process improvement and the usage of applicant tracking systems reduce recruiting process costs. Specifically, the cycle time of the recruiting process can be shortened significantly through business process controlling and process analysis, and by using an applicant tracking system that supports the design and evaluation of key performance indicators. Business process standardization combined with applicant tracking systems and business process documentation as well these systems used together with business process controlling have a significant positive impact on stakeholder satisfaction with the recruiting process. The general quality of the process can be improved through business process controlling as well as through a combination of applicant tracking systems and business process controlling. Our results reveal that several components of the business process management in conjunction with a supporting applicant tracking system have differing impacts on recruiting process performance. This paper discusses these diverse effects of business process management on process performance and draws implications for information systems success research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
Information technology as daily stressor: pinning down the causes of burnout
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p. 349-387, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11573-014-0759-8

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The research presented in this article aims to identify information technology-related stressors in daily work life that might contribute to burnout. We provide a detailed analysis of techno- and work-stressors, techno- and work-exhaustion, as well as the consequences of and interrelations among these perceptions. Techno-stressors and techno-exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work-stressors, work-exhaustion, and work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed model assesses whether using information technology (IT) or other work-stressors cause exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes in terms of low job satisfaction, low organizational commitment, and high turnover intention. The results of an empirical study with 306 employees show that IT usage causes exhaustion because techno-stressors contribute to techno-exhaustion, which in turn influences work-exhaustion significantly. Our results also reveal that work-exhaustion negatively impacts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention, whereas techno-exhaustion only indirectly causes these psychological and behavioral responses through work-exhaustion. Finally, post hoc analyses identify that employees who use IT as a supporting tool for their daily work process (such as HR workers) report higher levels of techno-exhaustion than employees for whom IT is the core of their work (IT professionals, such as software developers).

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The effect of personality on IT personnel's job-related attitudes: Establishing a dispositional model of turnover intention across IT job types
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 48-66, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2014.27

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Research on IT personnel has observed that the major predictors for turnover intention are job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Joseph et al. 2007). However, less is known about how these predictors are determined and how they vary according to the different job types of IT personnel. Hence, we develop and evaluate a dispositional model of turnover Intention across IT job types as the first approach in IT turnover research combining the personality traits of the five-factor model (McCrae and Costa 2006) and the basic turnover model found among Western IS professionals (Lacity et al. 2008) into one research model. By the help of the model we analyze the role of personality in IT personnel turnover across four groups of IT roles: consultants, programmers, system engineers and system administrators. The results of an empirical analysis of 813 IT personnel reveal significant differences across the four groups in terms of personality and job-related attitudes. In terms of personality traits, system engineers rank highest in openness and conscientiousness, IT consultants in extraversion, programmers in neuroticism, and system administrators in agreeableness. In 50% of all cases, personality traits are significant predictors for job-related attitudes. Additionally, they indirect affect IT personnel turnover intention. Neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness are also important indirect predictors for turnover intention, whereas openness has only a weak effect and agreeableness no measurable effect.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 24:5, pp. 447-464, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2014.3

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As the number of messages and social relationships embedded in social networking sites (SNS) increases, the amount of social information demanding a reaction from individuals increases as well. We observe that, as a consequence, SNS users feel they are giving too much social support to other SNS users. Drawing on social support theory, we call this negative association with SNS usage "social overload" and develop a latent variable to measure it. We then identify the theoretical antecedents and consequences of social overload and evaluate the social overload model empirically using interviews with twelve and a survey of 571 Facebook users. The results show that extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs. offline friends) are factors that directly contribute to social overload while age has only an indirect effect. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include feelings of SNS exhaustion by users, low levels of user satisfaction, and a high intention to reduce or even stop using SNS. The resulting theoretical implications for social support theory and SNS acceptance research are discussed and practical implications for organizations, SNS providers, and SNS users are drawn.

Dwivedi, Y.K., Wastell, D., Laumer, S., Zinner Henriksen, H., Myers, M.D., Bunker, D., Elbanna, A., Ravishankar, M.N., and Srivastava, S.S. (2014)
Research on information systems failures and successes: Status update and future directions
Information Systems Frontiers 17:1, p. 143-157, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10796-014-9500-y

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Information systems success and failure are among the most prominent streams in IS research. Explanations of why some IS fulfill their expectations, whereas others fail, are complex and multi-factorial. Despite the efforts to understand the underlying factors, the IS failure rate remains stubbornly high. A Panel session was held at the IFIP Working Group 8.6 conference in Bangalore in 2013 which forms the subject of this Special Issue. Its aim was to reflect on the need for new perspectives and research directions, to provide insights and further guidance for managers on factors enabling IS success and avoiding IS failure. Several key issues emerged, such as the need to study problems from multiple perspectives, to move beyond narrow considerations of the IT artifact, and to venture into underexplored organizational contexts, such as the public sector.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Transformation of People, Processes, and IT in E-Recruiting: Insights from an Eight-year Case Study of a German Media Corporation
Employee Relations (36:4), p. 415-431, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-07-2013-0079

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Purpose - There is only scarce research about the transformation of e-HRM in general, and of the e-recruiting function in particular. Further, there is not much known of the transformational implications for the related people, process, and information technology (IT). Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the transformation of e-recruiting caused by external influences outside of the organization, we report the results of an eight-year case with a media corporation in order to derive and describe five consecutive steps of an e-recruiting transformation model. Findings - We come up with five stages (transformation of tools, transformation of systems, transformation of workflows, transformation of tasks, and transformation of communication), each influenced by external developments and market tendencies (War for Talent, increasing number of applications, job market switch, globalization of job market, changing communication behavior). Research limitations/implications - This research contributes to literature by explaining the drivers of an e-HRM transformation and the different stages of this transformation process differentiated by the affected people, processes and IT. However, it only observes the transformation in one company, hence the transformation of further e-HRM functions in other companies might differ. Practical implications - We highlight both the transformation of e-recruiting and for the related people, processes and IT, so companies could observe their current status of e-recruiting transformation. Originality/value - This paper represents the first longitudinal approach observing the transformation of e-recruiting by describing different stages and external influences.

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise Content Management
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (5:6), p. 449-452, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12599-013-0291-3

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise-Content-Management
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (55:6), p. 453-456, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11576-013-0384-0

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Analyzing the impact of HRIS implementations on HR personnel's job satisfaction and turnover intention
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:3), p. 193-207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2012.09.001
One of the 5 most highly cited papers published in Journal of Strategic Information Systems

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An in-depth case of an e-Recruiting system implementation is used while focusing on the level of Human Resource (HR) employees to research unintended consequences during the implementation of Human Resources Information Systems (HRISs). We develop a model that integrates the belief and attitude component of the technology acceptance literature with work-related consequences. We provide evidence for an indirect effect of attitudes toward the HRIS on turnover intention that is fully mediated by job satisfaction. Our results contribute to the literature on systems implementations and technology adoption by suggesting work-related outcomes as important additional success variables.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Online Gaming to Find a New Job - Examining Job Seekers' Intention to Use Serious Games as a Self-Assessment Tool
Zeitschrift für Personalforschung: German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management (26:3), p. 218-240

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Serious games can be used as self-assessment tools in recruiting processes. We develop a model explaining jobseekers' intentions to use these applications, which help them to gain a realistic idea of the job at hand and allows them to submit their application only if the job truly fits their individual profile. Drawing on organizational justice theory and the technology acceptance literature, our model is empirically evaluated using data from 1,882 jobseekers. The results indicate that jobseekers' intention to use self-assessments is driven in particular by its perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived selection fairness. In contrast, the issue of privacy security has no significant impact on jobseekers' intentions. For firms, using serious games as a self-assessment tool can lead to a reduction in the total number of unsuitable applications they receive.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Bewerbermanagementsysteme in deutschen Großunternehmen: Wertbeitrag von IKT für dienstleistungsproduzierende Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 47-75, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11573-012-0582-z

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Zusammenfassung: In stürmischen Zeiten für die Personalbeschaffung deutscher Großunternehmen aufgrund von Fachkräftemangel können Beschaffungsmanagementsysteme zur Gewinnung neuer Mitarbeiter wertvolle Unterstützung für die Rekrutierung leisten. Zur Untersuchung des Wertbeitrages des automatisierten Aufgabenträgers dieser Systeme, der sogenannten Bewerbermanagementsysteme, wurden Personalverantwortliche der 1.000 größten Unternehmen in Deutschland befragt. Auf Basis der Ergebnisse dieser repräsentativen Umfrage konnten folgende Erkenntnisse für den Wertbeitrag von Bewerbermanagementsystemen als Teil dienstleistungsproduzierender Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme gewonnen werden. Durch den Einsatz dieser Systeme werden primär Zeitreduktionen innerhalb einzelner Prozessabschnitte der Personalbeschaffung und eine Kostenreduktion für die interne Bearbeitung von Bewerbungen erreicht. Eine Verbesserung der Qualität der eingestellten Wunschkandidaten kann hingegen nicht realisiert werden. Es bestehen keine Unterschiede beim Wertbeitrag für das unternehmerische Leistungs- und Lenkungssystem. Auch die Unternehmensgröße hat keinen Einfluss auf denWertbeitrag der Bewerbermanagementsysteme.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Electronic Human Resources Management in an E-Business Environment
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research (11:4), p. 240-25

View Abstract
This special issue on Electronic Human Resources Management (E-HRM) in an E-Business environment looks at opportunities and challenges associated with recruiting and developing a firm's workforce in a digital world characterized by endemic talent scarcity, changing values and shifting on- and offline behaviors of candidates and employees. We first draw on a Delphi study with leading HR executives from 25 internationally renowned large firms and on a quantitative survey with 144 HR managers from German top 1,000 firms to delineate the key trends and issues for modern HR executives. Demographic challenges and the war for talent are seen as the most important trends in firms of all sizes and in all industries, even ahead of, for example, Social Media or the global economic crisis. Resulting from these trends, our survey reveals that HR managers' most pressing challenges are staff retention and internal and external employer branding. Overall, the results emphasize the importance for an E-HRM that needs to be both effective - adequately fill vacancies - and efficient - make best use of scarce resources. The papers in the special issue address some of the open issues identified. Overall, in a peer-review process two out of nine submitted articles were selected for the special issue (22 per cent acceptance). The first paper by Stefan Strohmeier scrutinizes how e-portfolios can improve e-recruiting and talent management. The second paper by Sharna Wiblen, David Grant and Kristine Dery uses a single case study to learn how a shift from HRM to E-HRM can affect talent management and people in an organization and transform a firm's IT and HR function.

Münstermann, B., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2010)
The Performance Impact of Business Process Standardization - HR Case Study Insights
Management Research Review (früher: Management Research News) (33:9), p. 924-939

View Abstract
Purpose: This paper intends to enhance the understanding of business process standardization and how it contributes to generate business value. This research is a step towards a solid theoretical framework around business process standardization. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study conducted in a global operating company is completed. Standardization of a certain business process (in our case the recruiting process) is shown to contribute to business value. Findings: By standardizing its recruiting process, the company was able to reduce the "Time-to-Hire" from 92 to 69 days and the overall costs of the recruiting process by about 30 percent. The quality of the applicant data has clearly improved. Clarity and transparency of the recruiting process could be increased while the administrative expense within the HR departments in the distinct business locations could be reduced significantly. Research limitations: As with every case study, the generalizability of our findings is limited because a) the results are based on a single case only and b) because we focus solely on one process - the recruiting process - and do not include other business processes. Practical implications: The case study can be useful for any company that intends to standardize its recruiting process. Clear indications of how to achieve business value out of process standardization are given. Originality/value: This study provides a clear definition of what business process standardization is and how it can lead to increased business value. To practitioners clear indications of how to achieve increased business value by business process standardization are provided. Keywords: Business process standardization, Business value, Human resources information systems, Recruitment Paper type: Case study

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Trunk, N. (2010)
Do as your parents say? - Analyzing IT adoption influencing factors for full and under age applicants
Information Systems Frontiers (12:2), p. 169-183

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2009)
A Framework for Recruiting IT Talent: Lessons from Siemens
MIS Quarterly Executive (8:4), p. 123-197

View Abstract
Recruiting and attracting IT talent remains a challenge for IT executives and will once again come to the forefront as the world's economies begin to emerge from recession. As this happens, we expect skills shortages to rise up the IT management agenda, especially as the "baby boomer" generation begins to retire and as the number of computer science graduates reduces. To help IT recruiters face the challenges, we provide a four-quadrant framework that segments recruitment activities on two dimensions - the recruitment timescale and the scarcity of the skills required. Based on the experiences of German industrial giant Siemens, we have identified the recruitment methods that can be applied in each quadrant and provide an indication of their relative costs. We conclude with eight recommendations for improving the recruitment of IT talent in an era when skilled people increasingly expect to be contacted - even wooed - by prospective employers rather actively searching for opportunities themselves.

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
E-Assessment
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (1:3), p. 263-265

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
E-Assessment
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (51:3), p. 306-308

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Who influences whom? - Analyzing workplace referents' social influence on IT adoption and non-adoption
Journal of Information Technology (14.1), p. 11-24

Eckhardt, A. and Laumer, S. (2009)
An IT-Architecture to Align E-Recruiting and Retention Processes
International Journal of E-Services and Mobile Applications (1:2), p. 38-61

Conference Articles (Peer Reviewed)

Oehlhorn, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Gender Diversity in IT: A Case Study on Sustainably Successful Interventions
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the 41st International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Hyderabad, India
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Our research draws on the persistent issue of sustaining women in the IT domain and the related achievement of more gender diversity. We recognize that the strategic challenge goes beyond just finding and keeping more female IT professionals through single, stand-alone measures. Instead, the development of successful and sustainable diversity strategies as well as long-term talent pipelines is required. We conduct case studies with multiple organizations that obtained significant results in the context of increasing gender diversity. In line with research on the career development of female IT professionals and established human resource management functions, we present initial results on how to develop and implement sustainably successful strategies. The contributions for IS research on female IT professionals and IT human resource management as well as valuable implications for executives of our research are provided.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., Oehlhorn, C., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Benefits in Privacy Research: A Literature Review, Status Quo and Future Research Directions
Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Nuremberg, Germany

View Abstract
Research in the stream of privacy considers benefits as an important and central concept. Benefits are the positive outcomes that individuals will experience when disclosing information. However, we see that only few papers theorize benefits in their research and thereby the operationalization and understanding of benefits is mixed, unstandardized and seems to follow no specific order. Based on that observation, we aim to provide a first step towards a standardized usage of benefits in privacy research studies, by summarizing existing benefits in privacy research and categorizing them. To do so, we base on the theory of perceived value. This theory uses five dimensions (emotional value, social value for myself, social value for others, monetary value as well as utility value), which we use to categorize different benefits. The results confirm our initial observations that indeed different constructs of benefits are used even in the same research context without justification. Implications among others refer to the recommendation to use the same term for the same construct and to consider all five dimensions of benefits in privacy research studies.

Laumer, S., Alter, S., and Maier, C. (2019)
A Systems Perspective on IS User Satisfaction in Digitalized Enterprises: Conclusions from Five Case Studies
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Munich, Germany

View Abstract
We present a systems perspective on IS user satisfaction that is more appropriate in digitalized organizations than prominent streams of user satisfaction research from several decades ago that focused largely on voluntary, individual use of IT. We developed this perspective by analyzing five case studies commissioned by managers facing user satisfaction issues in important ISs. Direct quotations from recorded transcripts of 111 interviews from the cases illustrated that IS user satisfaction issues involved much more than the IS itself. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interview data led to the conclusion that IS user satisfaction was formed as work system participants fulfilled responsibilities within work systems that produced product/services for internal and/or external customers. The information systems were integral parts of those work systems. IS users tended to evaluate an IS in relation to the extent to which it helped them perform their work activities and fulfill their responsibilities.

Oehlhorn, C., Laumer, S., and Maier, C. (2019)
Sustaining the IT Workforce: A Review of Major Issues in 25 Years and Future Directions
Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Nashville (TN), USA

View Abstract
Attracting, recruiting and retaining a sufficient number of information technology professionals remains a key issue for organizations. Although research and practice call upon this issue for quite some time and suggest various interventions, the shortage of qualified IT professionals does not decline, but seems to increase. Thus, sustaining the IT workforce represents a recurring issue faced with challenges that are fixed firmly within the domain. This literature review aims to identify the major issues related to sustaining IT professionals from a human resource management perspective. Sixty-seven research articles from the AIS Senior Scholars' basket are reviewed to identify the major issues respectively to the past times from the dot com boom during the 1990s, across industry recession in 2001 up to the present day. Four major issues are explained and discussed.

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Attracting Young IT Professionals: An Empirical Study Using the Theory of Attractive Quality
Proceedings of the 2019 on ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Nashville (TN), USA
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
Attracting and recruiting qualified information technology (IT) professionals remains one key issue for executives for numerous years. The so-called war for IT talent illustrates the hard competition of employers for well-educated IT professionals who develop and advance future technologies. Thus, employers are required to court the young professionals' attention to recruit the best of them. Previous research lists certain attractiveness attributes but leaves their interrelations open. We therefore evaluate established attractiveness attributes referring to the Theory of Attractive Quality. To answer the research question? What attracts young IT professionals to an employer?' we conduct an empirical study surveying 223 young IT professionals and evaluate 24 attractiveness attributes that employers should or even need to provide in order to recruit young IT professionals.

Laumer, S., Gubler, F., Racheva, A., and Maier, C. (2019)
Use Cases for Conversational Agents: An Interview-based Study
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the 25th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Cancún, Mexico

View Abstract
This study explores use cases for conversational agents using an interview-based study with 50 individuals. We report an analysis that illustrates which conversational agents designs are perceived as useful or enjoyable by individuals and are therefore a predictor for adoption and diffusion of conversational agents in both private and professional contexts. The results of the interviews are classified into seven use case categories: Use of conversational agents for information retrieval, smart home control, goods and services, car and navigation, music and entertainment, work and office and other. However, the results also indicate that in order to improve perceived usefulness, conversational agents must improve and become "more intelligent". Though, concerns such as privacy issues and transparency should be addressed by companies in order to ensure a sustainable development and diffusion. Hence, we conclude an agenda for research and designers of conversational agents to focus on use cases and conversational agents designs that provide the breeding ground for adoption and diffusion.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Gubler, F. (2019)
Chatbot acceptance in healthcare: explaining user adoption of conversational agents for disease diagnosis
Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm-Uppsala, Sweden

View Abstract
In this research, we develop a research model explaining the adoption of conversational agents for disease diagnosis. Healthcare is challenged by a parallel increasing demand for healthcare services and a decreasing supply of healthcare professionals. Mobile Health is proposed to overcome geographical, temporal, and organizational barriers of healthcare services. Conversational agents (CA), i.e. software programs that interact with users through natural language, are developed that are even able to diagnose a disease based on an individuals' input using a chat interface. However, these systems face an adoption challenge. To understand that, we use UTAUT2 as theoretical lens and 35 semi-structured interviews with potential users of a CA for disease diagnosis. Based on that we propose a research model that contains (1) well-known UTAUT2 factors (performance and effort expectancy, facilitating conditions), (2) re-defined other factors to better fit the context (social influence, price value, habit), and (3) newly identified ones (privacy risk expectancy, trust in provider and system, compatibility, experience in e-diagnosis, access to health system). We also reveal that hedonic motivation is not relevant for CA adoption. The newly proposed model addresses research gaps in CA research in general, but also in mHealth and especially the use of CA in healthcare research in particular. We also discuss rather general implications for technology acceptance research and provide some suggestions for providers of CA in healthcare to increase the diffusion rates of these systems.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Subjective Norm and the Privacy Calculus: Explaining Self-Disclosure on Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm-Uppsala, Sweden

View Abstract
The privacy calculus postulates that individuals disclose information when benefits outweigh privacy risks. Despite its wide applicability, research has also challenged the privacy calculus. It was shown that individuals disclose information even if benefits do not outweigh privacy risks. Two explanations have been provided: On the one hand, perceptions might lead to a miscalculation of benefits and privacy risks. On the other hand, additional concepts might alter the effect of benefits and privacy risks on disclosure. In this research study we provide a third explanation: We suggest subjective norm to be a factor which overlies the effect of benefits and privacy risk. Subjective norm is the perceived social pressure of individuals that other important referents around expect the individual to undertake a certain behavior. To integrate subjective norm into the privacy calculus, we use the theory of reasoned action as our theoretical lens. Based on a survey with 1,466 participants and a covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis, we can conclude that subjective norm has the strongest effect on disclosure. The results contribute to theory in the privacy domain, by questioning in how far the privacy calculus can be considered, without taking the environment into consideration.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Justification of Mass Surveillance: A Quantitative Study
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Siegen, Germany

View Abstract
Online mass surveillance by governmental organizations is omnipresent. Even though this results in a loss of privacy and further negative outcomes for individuals, a majority is justifying mass surveillance. Understanding, why this is the case is among others important for individuals, who want to decrease justification of mass surveillance. Therefore, this study aims to uncover the factors that drive this justification. Drawing on system justification theory we consider mass surveillance to be a political arrangement. Five factors were identified that potentially drive individuals' justification of mass surveillance which are among others, perceived privacy control or perceived security. A quantitative study was carried out and the results support most of our hypotheses. With our results, we contribute to the privacy-related area in the domain of IS, by indicating that individuals consider mass surveillance not necessarily to be bad and by giving advice on how to alter the level of justification.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
How do Users Respond to Technostress? An Empirical Analysis of Proactive and Reactive Coping
Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, USA

View Abstract
As technostress costs organizations financial resources and threatens the well-being, it is essential for users as well as companies to manage technostress. To do so, users cope proactive by removing or reducing techno-stressors or reactive by restoring users' emotional state. However, literature is limited by explaining what factors lead to proactive and reactive coping in a short-term technostress situation. The present paper addresses these shortcomings by investigating in how techno-stressors and emotional exhaustion influences proactive and reactive coping. Results based on 110 users show that users respond to techno-stressors in a proactive way, whereas users reactively respond to emotional exhaustion. In addition, proactive coping is stronger affected by techno-stressors, and reactive coping is stronger affected by emotional exhaustion. Thereby, we contribute to technostress and coping literature by demonstrating how users respond in short-term technostress situation and highlight the importance of time in the present context.

Oehlhorn, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Is There an IT Gender Recruiting Gap? Studying Equal Opportunities during Recruitment
Proceedings of the SIG Social Inclusion (SIGSI) Research Workshop, San Francisco (CA), USA
(Research in Progress)

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Females' Handling of Threatening Experiences when Studying IT: An Explorative Study Using Coping Theory
Proceedings of the 4th SIG Social Inclusion (SIGSI) Research Workshop, San Francisco (CA), USA
(Research in Progress)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Oehlhorn, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
A Social Comparison Perspective to Study Negative Effects of Telework
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), San Francisco, CA, USA

View Abstract
Telework is indisputably important for establishing a positive work-life-balance for employees. Teleworkers are less stressed and more satisfied by work implying turnover intentions that are below half of those of regular office workers. However, recent practical indications suggest that there is also a dark side of telework, meaning that telework has adverse effects for office workers, who, among others, develop feelings of envy. To study these adverse effects for office workers, we use social comparison theory and suggest that a disparity of telework causes negative emotions and adverse behaviors. In developing our research model, we posit that office workers become envy, dissatisfied with their job, develop turnover intentions and perform worse. An empirical study with 269 employees working in one organization with telework arrangements confirms the hypothesized relationships. Therewith, this study contributes to telework research by providing an interpersonal perspective on telework and revealing that there is a dark side of telework for office workers, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from developing adverse emotions and behaviors.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2018)
The Influence of Resignation on the Privacy Calculus in the Context of Social Networking Sites: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 26th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Portsmouth,UK

View Abstract
Individuals conduct a privacy calculus before they disclose information by weighing benefits with privacy risks of disclosure. In line with the privacy calculus, if benefits outweigh privacy risks individuals disclose information, otherwise they do not. However, research has also challenged the privacy calculus because individuals also disclose information even in light of low benefits and high privacy risks. Given explanations refer to 1) altering the perceptions of benefits and privacy risks or 2) altering the effect of benefits and privacy risks on disclosure. Whereas studies focusing on the first part have provided explanations for why the privacy calculus is sometimes not confirmed, studies on the second part do not do so. This study is therefore considering the second part and is integrating an individual's level of resignation to protect one's privacy in the context of social networking sites. We consider resignation as a reaction of individuals to given privacy threats. Results show that when including resignation the effect of benefits becomes stronger and the effect of privacy risks becomes weaker. Implications for theory include that resignation helps in explaining why individuals disclose information even when only small benefits and high privacy risks are present.

Laumer, S., Gubler, F., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Job Seekers' Acceptance of Job Recommender Systems: Results of an Empirical Study
Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Waikoloa, Hawaii
Nominated for Best Paper

View Abstract
Based on UTAUT2 and the importance of trust to explain user behavior in relation to recommender systems, we focus on job recommender systems by developing and validating a job recommender system acceptance model. The results of our empirical, survey-based study with 440 job seekers indicate that beside performance expectancy and habit, trust is among the three most important determinants and it is especially relevant for women, passive job seekers and those without experience in using job recommender systems. The paper extends general trust and recommender system research by revealing three moderators for the trust and intention relationship. It contextualizes the UTAUT2 by incorporating trust as an antecedent of a consumer's intention to use and by revealing three moderating effects for this relationship. Hence, it is the basis for further studies investigating the acceptance of job recommender system, which has rather been neglected by prior research.

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2017)
Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Employer Branding for the Female IT Workforce to Counteract Skill Shortage and Support Diversity
Proceedings of the MISQE Special Issue workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seoul, South Korea

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Understanding Privacy Threat Appraisal and Coping Appraisal through Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)
Nominated for the Most Innovative Short Paper Award

View Abstract
Individuals differ in their motivation to protect their privacy. When facing privacy threats, individuals evaluate the threat (threat appraisal) and the extent they can cope with it (coping appraisal) which, in turn, influences their protection motivation. Hence, better understanding both appraisals helps us to better understand an important part of privacy behavior. We introduce the concept of mindfulness to explain privacy threat and coping appraisals. Mindfulness is hypothesized to increase both, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. A quantitative study is to be carried out to examine our hypotheses. We expect to contribute to the privacy literature by demonstrating how different levels of threat appraisal and coping appraisal are formed.

Maier, C., Wirth, J., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Personality and Technostress: Theorizing the Influence of IT Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Even though IT use has numerous benefits for users and organizations, such as improved performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience IT use as a source of stress, i.e. technostress. Since such technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads individuals to perceive it. Based on psychology research suggesting user personality as a cause of stress perceptions, this research uses the Theory of Personality to investigate how user personality influences technostress. In developing our research model, we focus on the dynamic, context-specific trait IT mindfulness and on the degree to which this trait determines the perception of technostress. This study contributes to technostress research by revealing that user personality in general and IT mindfulness in particular are determinants of technostress, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from perceiving technostress.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Analyzing and managing IT-induced work system changes
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Teaching Case)

View Abstract
This teaching case explores the challenges of changing a work system by implementing an information system (IS). The case describes the approach implemented by "The Bank", a financial service provider, when it implemented a new financial and banking IS "SysOne", and thus fundamentally changed its work systems. The case is a real business scenario, which bases on case study research conducted by our research team and it adapts recent theoretical advances in the IS implementation literature. Using this teaching case should encourage students to discuss IS implementations from a general "system thinking" rather than a "tool thinking" perspective. An IS implementation is not just a new tool, it is a change of employees' work systems. This teaching case should guide students to extend the efforts implemented to guide employees when implementing an IS beyond the technology to focus on the major IT-induced work system changes and thereby enable successful technochange.

Renner, D. and Laumer, S. (2017)
Development and Test of a Semi-structured Explorative Survey Methodology to Analyze Appropriate Learning Methods for Technology-related Training across the Phases of Technology Use
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, St. Gallen, CH

View Abstract
Training is regarded as an indicator for organizations' performance. To analyze appropriate learning methods for technology-related training across the phases of technology use we develop a semi-structured, explorative survey methodology. The methodology is tested with a sample of 53 healthcare professionals from China, France and the USA. Based on that, lessons learnt are concluded that confirm the usefulness of the methodology for research and practice. In addition, further improvements and enlargements of the methodology are illustrated in this paper as basis for further research.

Oehlhorn, C., Laumer, S., and Maier, C. (2017)
About Well-considered Decisions, Favorable Alternatives and Sudden Ideas: A Qualitative Research to Identify Beliefs that Influence Women to Study Information Systems in Germany
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, St. Gallen, CH

View Abstract
Our research reveals motivational beliefs that influenced the decision to study information systems of female students in Germany. We apply a qualitative methodology in form of narrative interviews and interviewed 21 female students at a German university. On the basis of the theory of planned behavior, our results expose that a range of different beliefs exist which influenced the women's decision. We are able to expand the results of previous studies to the German context regarding especially normative beliefs, alternate choices or prior experiences dealing with information technology. In addition, we also uncover a couple of new beliefs that had not been revealed before.

Laumer, S., Shami, N., Muller, M., and Geyer, W. (2017)
The Challenge of Enterprise Social Networking (Non-)Use at Work: A Case Study of How to Positively Influence Employees' Enterprise Social Networking Acceptance
Proceedings of the Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Portland, Oregon, USA

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Is Information Technology Solely to Blame? The Influence of Work-home Conflict Dimensions on Work Exhaustion
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
Using information technology (IT) can blur the boundaries between work and private life and contribute to an IT-based work-home conflict (WHC). Organizations and governments treat IT usage as the main source of WHC and have implemented laws and policies to restrict access to IT to reduce WHC. In this paper, we investigate the effect of IT usage-related and work-based dimensions of WHC: time-, strain-, and behavior-based WHC. Understanding the dimensions of WHC can help organizations and governments move beyond IS usage restrictions to identify and prevent the negative consequences of each dimension for employees, such as work exhaustion. We distinguish IT- from work-based dimensions and theorize their effect on work exhaustion. The results of a study of 542 employees show that the IT-based dimension of WHC only indirectly influences work exhaustion, whereas time- and strain-based WHC contribute significantly and directly to work exhaustion. Implications for research and practice are suggested.

Renner, D., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
The Appropriateness of Blended Learning across the Phases of Technology Use
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
Healthcare professionals are characterized compared to other professionals through their continuous need of training due to constantly implementing complex technologies, which have a direct impact on patients’ well-being. In this context blended learning has been already successfully used. Nevertheless, less is known regarding the appropriateness of blended learning over the phases of healthcare technology. Therefore, we conducted a semi-structured, explorative survey, using a mixed method research design and interviewed 16 healthcare professionals of three Chinese hospitals. We focus in our survey on the appropriateness of traditional and online learning methods across different phases of technology use. Based on our results we conclude three propositions regarding blended learning. The propositions indicate that the appropriateness of traditional and online learning methods differs according to the phases of technology use, the healthcare professionals’ user role and the complexity of the healthcare technology used.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
The influence of change-related stress on user resistance when an enterprise system is implemented: a longitudinal field study
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
When an enterprise system is implemented employees often respond with user resistance behavior. As employees’ work environment are changed significantly they also experience stress during an implementation. However, neither technostress nor user resistance research have focused on the stress related to the change induced by an enterprise system implementation. Hence, it is not known how change-related stress results in user resistance behavior and thus prevents organizations from managing the implementation process sufficiently. Therefore, we provide a research model that theorizes the influence of change characteristics, such as change complexity, switching costs and switching benefits, on change-related work overload and role ambiguity as change stressors, which in turn determines employees change-induced exhaustion. When this exhaustion is perceived as a threat user resistance behavior will occur. Using a longitudinal field study with 273 employees during an enterprise system implementation we provide empirical evidence for the proposed model.

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Wirth, J., Laumer, S., and Dürr, S. (2016)
A Temptation to Stalk: The Impact of Curiosity on User Acceptance of Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Diego (CA)

View Abstract
Social networking sites occupy increasing fields of daily life and act as important communication channels today. But recent research also discusses the dark side of these sites, which expresses in form of stress, envy, addiction or even depression. Nevertheless, there must be a reason why people use social networking sites, even though they face related risks. One reason is human curiosity that tempts users to behave like this. The research on hand presents the impact of curiosity on user acceptance of social networking sites, which is theorized and empirically evaluated by using the technology acceptance model and a quantitative study among Facebook users. It further reveals that especially two types of human curiosity, epistemic and interpersonal curiosity, influence perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment, and with it technology acceptance.

Dürr, S., Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2016)
A Literature Review on Enterprise Social Media Collaboration in Virtual Teams: Challenges, Determinants, Implications and Impacts
Proceedings of the 16th ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Alexandria (VA), USA

View Abstract
This literature review focusses research on Enterprise Social Media (ESM) and its use within virtual teams. The paper includes results from 38 articles outlining the existing body of knowledge and showing the steady progress in this research field. Previous literature often thematizes the external use of social media and technological aspects, but this research concentrates on the internal collaborative use, its challenges, related determinants, managerial implications and its impact on business. Existing research illustrates key factors in each of the previously mentioned subjects. However, as research should consider the entire field, a research agenda for further studies in this ESM topic is developed.

Laumer, S. (2016)
Information Quality Dimensions: Two exploratory Case Studies with Enterprise Content Management System Users
Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Istanbul
Best Paper Award Nominee

View Abstract
Using two explorative case studies we theorize in this paper about information quality as one variable of the IS success model explaining user satisfaction. We derive four dimensions of information quality which have a diverse and unique impact on user satisfaction: information characteristics, information access and security, information format, and task-information fit. Moreover, we identify contextual factors such as the pace of information change and update, legal and compliance requirements, and employees' skills which determine the importance of each dimensions for explaining user satisfaction. This more nuanced view of information quality as one component of the IS success model enables a better guidance of organizations in improving information quality to increase user satisfaction. Therefore, several organizational interventions are discussed that can be used to improve information quality by focusing on each of the four unique information quality dimensions separately.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
What happens when users are not able to perform coping mechanisms? An investigation of the habituation process
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA
(Research in Progress)
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
In some situations individuals are unable to perform coping mechanisms against technostress because of low controllability and resources. Thereby, they are repeatedly exposed to technology-related stimuli named IT-stressors, which should result in several user responses such as emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and poor performance. However, in these situations individuals might habituate to the IT-stressor such that the user responses are mitigated. We assume that the influence of the IT-stressor on emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and performance is moderated by this habituation effect. Therefore, we propose an experimental setting in which individuals are repeatedly exposed to a computer breakdown to which they might get used to over time. During the experiment, we draw on self-reporting and objective methods to capture user responses after each exposure to the IT-stressor, in order to analyze the change of the user responses across time. Thereby, we expect the results to contribute to technostress and coping literature.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Implicit Attitudes: An Investigation of Implicit Attitudes and Their Influences on Behavioral Intentions
Proceedings of the 14th Annual HCI/MIS Research Workshop (Pre-ICIS-Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
Attitudes are one of the three most-frequently studied antecedence of user behavior. Most of the investigations in the research stream of IS acceptance and usage have a pure focus on explicit attitudes, although psychological literature distinguishes between explicit and implicit attitudes. These unconscious automatic associations individuals make between an attitude object and its favorable or unfavorable evaluation are not taken into consideration in IS acceptance and usage literature. Hence, the present research zooms into the attitude construct by distinguishing between explicit and implicit attitudes and investigates their influences on behavioral intentions. Based on the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) and a survey, we conducted a study that captures explicit and implicit attitudes, to evaluate the research model. The research reveals that explicit and implicit attitudes are distinct constructs and that not only explicit but also implicit attitudes have an effect on behavioral intention towards using the IS.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Influence of laziness on data disclosure: an empirical investigation
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
"Smart devices think you're 'too lazy' to opt out of privacy Defaults". This was the headline of a recent news article indicating that individuals might be too lazy to stop disclosing their private data and therefore to care about their information privacy (IP). IP is an ongoing topic and has become even more important since Edward Snowden has shown that government agencies examine all digital communication worldwide. Nevertheless, research has been found out that individuals still disclose their data although they are concerned about their IP which is commonly referred to the IP paradox. In this research in progress we will research on the question whether individuals might just be too lazy to take care about their IP by not disclosing their data as it was indicated by recent news articles. Results will have implications for the IP research stream by better explaining data disclosure behavior and hence also contribute to the research stream about the IP paradox.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
A work system theory perspective on user satisfaction: Using multiple case studies to propose a work system success model
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
In this paper we use multiple case studies and apply work system theory to them to better understand user satisfaction in each case. Based on the IS success model and the three case studies we conclude that beside the classic investigated objects information and technology as proposed by the IS success model also additional component of a work system influence user satisfaction. In particular we identified that work practices and also the relation between work practices, information and technologies have an influence on user satisfaction. We also revealed products/services and customers as potential drivers of user satisfaction and analyzed individual, environmental, strategical, and infrastructure characteristics as important contextual factors. Therefore, we suggest a work system success model for an extended understanding of user satisfaction that should better guide organizations when designing and implementing information systems.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Successfully Implementing Enterprise Content Management: Lessons Learnt from a Financial Service Provider
Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Fort Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
Information overload and content chaos are major challenges for organizations, as they have to deal with a high amount of unstructured content. With enterprise content management (ECM) systems, a technological solution is developed to deal with such challenges; however, these systems can only provide value to an organization if they are implemented in the context of an ECM strategy. In this paper the implementation of a new ECM strategy at a financial service provider is described to illustrate how organizations can on the one side design an ECM strategy that reduces information overload and content chaos and on the other side implement it successfully. The four keys for successfully implementing ECM based on the lessons learnt derived are an ECM team leading the change process, the acceptance of users by meeting the organization’s business needs, a metadata taxonomy enabling dynamic content delivery, and an effective change management from the outset.

Dugan, C., Laumer, S., Erickson, T., Kellogg, W., and Geyer, W. (2015)
The #selfiestation: Design and Use of a Kiosk for Taking Selfies in the Enterprise
Proceedings of the INTERACT 2015, Bamberg, Germany

View Abstract
This paper describes the design and use of the #selfiestation, a kiosk for taking selfies. Deployed in an office of a large enterprise, its use was studied through analysis of 821 photos taken by 336 users over 24 weeks and interviews with 10 users. The findings show high adoption amongst residents (81.5%); describe selfie usage patterns (funatics, communicators, check-ins, doppelgangers, and groupies); illustrate social photo-taking behavior (78.6% of users posed as part of groups, and those who did took almost four times as many photos); and raises questions for future investigations into flexibility in self-representation over time. Office residents seeing social and community building value in selfies suggests that they have a place in the enterprise.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Drivers and Consequences of Frustration When Using Social Networking Services: A Quantitative Analysis of Facebook Users
Proceedings of the 21th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Puerto Rico

View Abstract
In this study drivers and consequences of frustration, a negative emotion when using information technology (IT), are theorized and empirically evaluated in a social networking services (SNS) usage context. For example, when users are frustrated by using SNS they might stop using these services. As the number of users mainly determines the value of SNS this paper focuses on frustration while using SNS. It is assumed that both technology and social aspects of SNS usage determine whether users feel frustrated. Empirical evidence can be provided that perceived enjoyment, envy, information overload, and social overload are antecedents of the sentiment frustration. It is also argued that frustration while using SNS will lead to dissatisfaction and discontinued usage. Based on the empirical evidence for this cohesion the paper discusses its theoretical contribution in terms of that discontinuous usage behavior is a coping strategy applied by users to minimize the frustration sentiment.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Extending Moore's Exhaustion Model: Including Further Dimensions of Burnout and Investigating Their Influence on Turnover Intention Among IT Professionals
Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Newport Beach, California USA

View Abstract
This research focuses on burnout as a driver of turnover intention amongst IT professionals. We extend Moore's exhaustion model by including further dimensions of burnout into the model, namely depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. The effect of stressors on these dimensions and the original dimension of emotional exhaustion is investigated, as is their influence on turnover intention among IT professional. Results based on a data sample of 154 IT professionals show that not only emotional exhaustion but also depersonalization leads to turnover intention. This outcome cannot be neglected when trying to reduce turnover intention in an organization in order to maintain competitive advantages. Moreover, while the stressors suggested by Moore influence emotional exhaustion, they only slightly explain the dimensions of depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. This indicates that these two dimensions of burnout are caused by additional factors, which represents a research gap worth investigating in future research.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Do we behave based on our implicit attitudes? Proposing a research model and an experimental study to investigate their influence on behavioral intentions
Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Münster
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Attitudes are one of the three most-frequently studied independent variables to explain user behavior. However, although psychological literature distinguishes between explicit and implicit attitudes, most of the investigations in the research stream of IS acceptance and usage have a pure focus on explicit attitudes and do not consider implicit attitudes. Explicit and implicit attitudes can be contradictory and both might predict behavioral intention. Therefore, the present research-in-progress focuses on closing the research gap of refraining to differentiate attitudes in explicit and implicit attitudes and hence examining the influence of implicit attitudes on user behavior. Based on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and surveys, we propose an experimental setting that measures explicit and implicit attitudes to validate the research model. The proposed research might contribute to the research stream of IS acceptance and usage by better predicting behavioral intentions by also considering implicit attitudes. Future results might explain distorted predictions of behavior and reduce the intention behavior gap. Furthermore, the present research-in-progress introduces a suitable method to measure implicit attitudes.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
What does the skin tell us about information systems usage? A literature-based analysis of the utilization of electrodermal measurement for IS research
Proceedings of the 2015 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria

View Abstract
The term NeuroIS appears more frequently within the field of information system (IS). NeuroIS describes the idea of applying cognitive neuroscience theories, methods, and tools to obtain physiological responses of the user while using IS. However, before adopting these methods into IS research, a proper assessment is necessary to determine whether the methods used in other disciplines are also applicable to IS research. The present research introduces the method of measuring the electrodermal activity (EDA). Thereby, the physiology and different measurement parameters are described. By identifying the use of EDA within other disciplines, the present research reveals application areas for EDA in six different research streams in IS research and poses further research questions, which might be answer by applying EDA in these areas.

Renner, D., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Blended Learning Success: Cultural and Learning Style Impacts
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Osnabrück

View Abstract
Corporate education in international organizations faces a lot of challenges which are hoped to be addressed by using blended learning concepts. However, the heterogeneity of an international workforce in terms of culture and learning style opposes this objective. Therefore, this research-in-progress paper focuses on cultural and learning style impacts on learning success when using blended learning in organizations. Based on first theoretical ideas of a blended learning success model the impact of culture and learning style on learning outcome is theorized and analyzed using an empirical study conducted with 81 employees of an international organization. The results reveal that national culture has an impact on blended learning success and therefore a cultural sensitive design of blended learning environments is necessary. The results are the basis for further research to develop a blended learning success model including cultural and learning style aspects as it is described in the paper.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Why are teleworkers stressed? An empirical analysis of the causes of telework-enabled stress
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Osnabrück

View Abstract
Despite the wide dissemination and acceptance of teleworking, there are negative effects for employees. Literature shows that these negative effects of telework lead to undesired outcomes for teleworkers such as telework-exhaustion. The present research, however, goes one step further by identifying three significant telework-characteristics and hypothesizing the relationship between telework-characteristics and telework-enabled stressors. By doing so, one can understand the reason why telework-enabled stressors are perceived and identify the source of these stressors, which can then be counteracted to maintain the advantages of teleworking. Therefore, this research investigates the influence of the following telework-characteristics - information undersupply, autonomy, and isolation - on telework-enabled stressors and accordingly on telework-exhaustion and on the intention to continue teleworking. Results of an analysis on 310 teleworkers show that telework-characteristics influence telework-enabled stressors and accordingly increase the extent of telework-exhaustion and decrease the intention to continue teleworking.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weinert, C. (2015)
Enterprise resource planning systems induced stress: a comparative empirical analysis with young and elderly SAP users
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Osnabrück

View Abstract
In this research study we investigate whether and how ERP system characteristics cause its users to experience stress. In order to do so, we analyze a research model explaining enterprise resource planning systems induced stress with an empirical study in two organizations (N=227). The results reveal that usefulness, complexity, reliability, and pace of change are important ERP system characteristics leading to the perception of stressors and exhaustion. Furthermore, our comparative empirical analysis with young and elderly ERP users indicate that the elderly ones perceive ERP characteristics more negatively and are more stressed and exhausted than the younger users.

Wirth, J., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Using a work system theory perspective to review 25 years of technology acceptance research: proposing a research agenda
Proceedings of the 2014 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
IT projects still often fail and do not generate the expected value due to the lack of user acceptance. From the point of view of the work system theory (WST) this might be grounded in the fact that in current technology acceptance research IT is treated as a technical artifact and not as part of a work system. Therefore, we set up a literature review to reflect 25 years of research since the introduction of its most prominent model to discuss in how far a work system theory perspective on technology acceptance research might help to explore possible research gaps. Our results reveal that the technology acceptance model (TAM) is still the predominant model in technology acceptance research and therefore the classic components of a work system namely participants, information and technology and the relation between these components have been researched very well. However, we found out that work practices and also the relation between work practices, participants, information and IT in relation to technology acceptance, which can have an influence on technology acceptance as well, have rather been neglected in current research. We also identified products/services and customers as potential drivers of user acceptance. We derive six propositions that can be further theorized and evaluated by technology acceptance research. Consequently, we conclude that a WST perspective on technology acceptance research is appropriate to discuss the acceptance of IT, which is part of a work system in which participants produce products or services for customers.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Why are they grumbling about my new system? Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence of employee grumbling as a user resistance behavior
Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
This research theorizes employee grumbling as a user resistance phenomenon observed during early information system (IS) implementation phases. When the usage of new IS is mandatory, user resistance cannot be observed when focusing technology usage, instead, employees protest against the IS implementation, or spoke rather negatively of it. This form of user resistance behavior is conceptualized by the newly proposed variable employee grumbling, which provides a different perspective on user resistance that can be used especially in early implementation phases to observe resistance behaviors. Perceived ease of use and usefulness, affective and cognitive resistance to change, and individual differences and basic tendencies are analyzed as antecedents based on study with 106 employees during an IS implementation. The results of the analysis reveal that especially affective resistance to change determine employee grumbling, and technology perceptions are less important in early implementation.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2014)
The Relationship between Psychological, Physiological, and Behavioral Strain towards Technostress
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2014)
Technostress-induced Skin Conductance Response Patterns and Performance
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Renner, D., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Effectiveness and Efficiency of Blended Learning - A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Savannah (GA)

View Abstract
The aim of this paper is to identify measurements of learning efficiency and learning effectiveness of blended learning and to analyze drivers of learning effectiveness and learning efficiency in learning environments of corporate education. Therefore a literature review of the AIS Electronic Library is done. With a single term search including "learning efficiency", "learning effectiveness" and "blended learning" 14 papers are identified. Regarding learning efficiency, less research is available so that only few measurements are available and no drivers are identified In contrary, learning effectiveness is in research focus: 10 measurement indicators and 16 drivers are analyzed. Few of these findings concentrate on blended learning environment in corporate education. In conclusion, an evaluation framework including learning effectiveness and efficiency for blended learning environments of corporate education is desirable. This paper discusses opportunities for future search based on the state-of-art knowledge published by the AIS Electronic Library.

Maier, C. and Laumer, S. (2014)
Technostress-induced distorted pre-adoption beliefs
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2014)
The impact of human resources information systems and business process management implementations on recruiting process performance: A case study
Proceedings of the 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Savannah (GA)

View Abstract
This research examines the effects of business process management (BPM) and information systems implementations in secondary service processes. Using a case study of BPM and human resources information systems (HRIS) in the recruiting context at a financial service provider it can be shown that BPM, defined as a structured systematic approach to analyze and continually improve a specific process, and HRIS provide positive effects in terms of cost reduction, increased cycle time, customer satisfaction, and improve quality for secondary service processes in organizations. The results contribute to IS research as they illustrate how combined BPM and IS can be implemented in secondary service processes and provide evidence for the positive effects of BPM and HRIS in this type of processes.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Stars Matter - How FLOSS Developers' Reputation Affects the Attraction of New Developers
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Singapore

View Abstract
The attraction of new developers is a key challenge for initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS). While previous evaluations consider status gains and competence evaluations to be key drivers for novices' joining behavior, it is unclear how FLOSS developers' relationships with others affect the attraction of new developers. In this research, we look at FLOSS developers' relationships in terms of positive evaluations given by others. Using this perspective, we examine how FLOSS developers' reputation among members within and beyond the project community affects their projects' ability to attract new developers. We draw on Social Resource Theory (SRT) and hypothesize that developers with a high reputation among others enjoy high visibility and credibility, which in turn helps their projects to attract new members. Finally, we propose an evaluation approach for our research model that examines the reputation and project behavior of more than 1,000 FLOSS developers on a longitudinal base.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Does teleworking negatively influence IT professionals? An empirical analysis of IT personnel's telework-enabled stress
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Singapore

View Abstract
Despite the wide dissemination and acceptance of teleworking in the IT industry, companies like Yahoo!, HP, or Best Buy have stopped their telework programs, which indicates that there might also be some negative side effects in this type of work. In regard to this, our research focuses on one particular negative side of teleworking by focusing on teleworking-induced stress of IT professionals. We theorize that teleworking-induced stressors influence IT personnel's psychological and behavioral strain in the form of exhaustion due to teleworking and discontinuous intention towards teleworking. Results of an empirical online survey with 57 IT professionals validate these dependencies, which gives us the grounds to identify work overload, work-home conflict, information underload, and social isolation as influence factors of exhaustion due to teleworking. Further results reveal that discontinuous intentions towards teleworking is directly influenced by social isolation and exhaustion due to teleworking, whereas the influence of work overload is mediated by exhaustion due to teleworking. Work overload due to telework has the strongest effect on exhaustion due to teleworking, which in turn is the strongest influence factor on the discontinuous intention towards teleworking.

Illig, S., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Why IS after all? An Explorative Analysis of Professionals' Letters of Study Motivation
Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
While the selection of majors in Information Systems (IS) is widely discussed, the context of IS in further education lacks attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the motivational factors of individuals who intent to study IS, although they have already graduated in another degree program. Based on an explorative analysis of 84 letters of motivation of applicants applying for a further education degree program in IS, we identify determinants of an individual's motivation to study IS after all. Based on that, we conclude that extrinsic motivations such as expected career enhancement are more important than in other contexts such as undergraduate study paths.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The influence of coping mechanisms on technostress
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Milan, Italy

View Abstract
This paper uses a laboratory experiment with perceptual and objective measures from skin conductance response to analyze the influence of different coping strategies on behavioral and psychological strain in the context of techostress. Thereby, behavioral strain is objectively observed in terms of task fulfillment and psychological strain by skin conductance response in four treatment groups, classified by receiving different coping strategies. Initial results of our research reveal that users with no-coping are strained more than those how utilized coping strategies during stressful situations. This also takes place subsequently to the IT-stressor, as the slope of the skin conductance level is negative when applying coping strategies. However, the first results of the SCR indicate that coping strategies have no influence on behavioral strain such as end-user performance. Furthermore, results of a MANOVA outline that the psychological strain level significantly differs between the treatment groups.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Although I am stressed, I still use IT! Theorizing the decisive impact of strain and addiction of social network site users in post-acceptance theory
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Milan, Italy
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
This paper examines the decisive roles of strain and addiction in post-acceptance behavior of social networking sites' users. Therefore, we focus in a first step on the formation of discontinuous usage intentions by theorizing strain, addiction, and satisfaction as direct influencing factor that causes and/or inhibits them. In a second step, the influence of these variables on the intention-behavior relation is focused. We theorize that addiction as well as the ratio between satisfaction and strain moderate whether users transfer discontinuous usage intentions into non-usage behavior. To validate the subsequent research model we propose a longitudinal research setting and present initial results, whereupon satisfaction and strain - but not addiction - causes discontinuous usage intentions. We discuss our expected contributions by revealing that satisfaction, strain, and addiction influence whether a technology is used continuously; however, their influence on intentions and actual behaviors differs.

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Using Social Software for Enhancing IS Talents' E-Learning Motivation
Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Cincinnati (OH)

View Abstract
In the aftermath of the global economic recession, 34% of all companies struggle to fill open positions. IS talents are the top-5 employees in demand. The countries' education systems are not flexible enough to provide enough workers with the right skills at the right point in time. E-learning could be part of the solution, if it were realizing its potential. The facts indicate that success of elearning in the academic context is considerable, but users are not enough motivated to participate in corporate e-learning inhibiting life-long learning. Given the advent of social software and its potential to increase user motivation, this paper specifically develops a model predicting the impact of social software features on user motivation to participate in corporate asynchronous elearning activities. Providing guidance for future e-learning research and implementations, it bases its findings on broad literature reviews.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2013)
The Impact of Business Process Management and Applicant Tracking Systems on Recruiting Process Performance: A Representative Empirical Study with Germany's Top-1,000 Organizations
Proceedings of the 75th Wissenschaftlichen Jahrestagung des VHB, Würzburg

View Abstract
This research focuses on the various effects of different business process management components as well as the joint impact with information technology on process performance in the recruiting context. The results of a study with Germany's Top-1,000 organizations reveal that reduction of recruiting process costs is significantly determined by business process analyses, business process improvement and the usage of applicant tracking systems. An improved cycle time of the recruiting process is significantly influenced by business process controlling, business process analyses, and by using an applicant tracking system that supports the design and evaluation of key performance indicators. Business process standardization and a joint usage of applicant tracking systems and business process documentation as well as controlling has a significant positive impact on stakeholders' satisfaction with the recruiting process. The general quality of the process can be improved by business process controlling as well as a joint usage of applicant tracking systems and business process controlling. Hence, the results reveal that different components of the business process management in conjunction with a supporting applicant tracking system have diverse impacts on different dimensions of recruiting process performance. The results are discussed by focusing on the diverse effects of business process management on process performance and implications for information systems success research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2013)
Pinning Down the Sources of Burnout: The Role of Information Technology as Daily Stressor
Proceedings of the 75th Wissenschaftlichen Jahrestagung des VHB, Würzburg

View Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to pin down some of the sources of the burnout phenomenon in modern organizations. We provide a more detailed understanding of work and techno-stressors, work- and techno-exhaustion, as well as consequences and interrelations of and between these feelings and perceptions. Therefore, techno-stressors and techno-exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work-stressors, work-exhaustion, and outcome variables, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed model enables a comparison of whether technology or other work-stressors induce feelings of exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes in terms of low job satisfactions, low organizational commitments, and high turnover intentions. Based on an empirical analysis (n=306), the results of our study show that technologies are a contributing factor for employee burnout, because techno-stressors are a contributing factor for techno-exhaustion, which in turn influences work-exhaustion significantly. Results also reveal that work-exhaustion causes job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention, whereas techno-exhaustion has solely an indirect effect through work-exhaustion on these psychological and behavioral responses. Furthermore, post-hoc analyses identify that employees, who use IT as a supporting for their daily work process (non-IT professionals, such as recruiters), report higher levels of techno-exhaustion compared to employees, who consider IT as core of their work (IT professionals, such as software developers). These analyses also indicate that techno-exhaustion has a direct and indirect effect on job satisfactions, organizational commitment, and turnover intention for non-IT professionals.

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Effect of Coping Mechanisms on Technology Induced Stress: Towards a Conceptual Model
Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago (IL)

View Abstract
Information and communication technology induced stress, called technostress, influences users negatively. Numerous investigations are made about technostress; however, none consider the concept of coping in order to explain strategies to avoid these negative consequences. Therefore, this paper develops a theoretical model to explain the coping process and how it influences technostress. The model theorizes that threat and coping appraisal are major determinants of emotional- and problem-focused coping whereby coping resources and individual's controllability influence the choice and the efficacy of coping. The resulting problem- or emotional-focused coping strategies are theorized to moderate the stressor-train relationship such that negative consequences can be avoided. The theoretical model suggests a different perspective on the linear view on the relationship between stressors and strain by proposing the consideration of the moderation effect of coping.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
In the spotlight - evaluating how celebrities affect floss developers' participation motivation
Proceedings of the 21th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Utrecht, The Netherlands

View Abstract
Motivating one's workforce is a major challenge for organizations. Demotivated employees not only cause harm to organizations' productivity and innovation but also show increased turn-over intentions. As in the case of organizations, projects developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) depend strongly on the motivation of their contributors. Existing research repeatedly highlights project members' motivation for FLOSS projects' success and continuance. However, existing evaluations primarily treat project members' participation motives as exogenous constructs. As a result no operational advice can be derived for FLOSS projects on how to motivate their contributors. This research takes an alternative view and regards FLOSS developers' motivation as product of their self-determination and influences of their surrounding environment. Drawing on Self-Determination-Theory (SDT), we consider FLOSS developers' motivation as multi-dimensional and sensitive to environmental stimuli. As an example for such environmental stimuli we propose that project celebrities (members with a high standing in the FLOSS community) stimulate the participation motives of project members in different ways. An evaluation with 65 participants of Google Summer of Code (GSoC) largely supports our research model and provides evidence for the endogenous character of FLOSS developers' motivation. Our research results suggest that celebrities stimulate rather self-determined than externally regulated motives.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
The negative side of ICT-enabled communication: the case of social interaction overload in online social networks
Proceedings of the 21th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Utrecht, The Netherlands

View Abstract
This research aims to explain the negative side of ICT-enabled communications. Therefore, the perception of users that social interactions on online social networks (OSN) are threatening is suggested as a new variable called social interaction overload. The paper theorizes that individual, OSN-specific, and OSN-specific communication characteristics manifest the extent to which social interaction overload is perceived and how users response to it in a psychological and behavioral manner. Results of an empirical survey with 246 OSN users validate the assumed effects, so that we identify age, number of friends, and communication content as contribution factors of social interaction overload, which in turn has a direct effect on the two outcome variables satisfaction and continuous usage intention. Moreover, results reveal that social interaction overload has higher effects on OSN users' satisfaction than perceived usefulness or perceived enjoyment.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Together but apart - How spatial, temporal and cultural distances affect FLOSS developers' project retention
Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Cincinnati (OH)

View Abstract
Companies rely more and more on virtual teams which consist of globally dispersed members. Unfortunately, members' separation can raise considerable interpersonal challenges. In order to prevent conflicts from deescalating and ensure effective teamwork, companies pay careful attention to the management of members' spatial, temporal and cultural distances. While initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) similarly combine a worldwide distributed workforce, relatively little is known about how members' separation affects their collaboration. However, without such an understanding no adequate advice can be derived for managers of FLOSS initiatives on how to foster members' collaboration and retention. Building on lessons learned from the organizational domain this research hypothesizes that spatial, temporal and cultural distances are key factors for FLOSS developers' team integration and project retention. To evaluate our research hypotheses, we study FLOSS developers' contribution and conversation behavior and extract objective figures on their spatial, temporal and cultural distances to each other.

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Towards understanding social software and its impact on corporate e-learning motivation
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Leipzig

View Abstract
This research combines recent discussions in the cross-disciplinary areas of e-learning, social software, and training motivation. On the one hand, e-learning with its role in a fast paced knowledge society, its potential to revolutionize education and the gap between research and practitioners is already in discussion for years. Discussions are becoming more intense with the rise of social software. On the other hand, human resources, life-long learning, and motivating employees to participate in trainings appear critical to organizations. This research focuses on e-learning in the corporate context and examines the impact of social software features on user motivation based on a review of training motivation literature and on 39 interviews conducted in an international IT services company. Findings suggest that the impact of social software features is still unknown, and that differentiating them by the learner's needs leads to further insights.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Role of Techno-Stressors and Techno-Exhaustion in Employees' Daily Work: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to provide a more detailed understanding of work and techno-stressors, work- and techno-exhaustion, as well as consequences of these feelings and perceptions. Therefore, techno-stressors and exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work stressors, work exhaustion, and outcome variables, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed theory enables a comparison of whether technology or other work stressors induce feelings of exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes. Based on an empirical analysis (N=306), the results of our study show that techno-stressors have an impact on work stressors and techno-exhaustion is a contributing factor for work exhaustion. Next, we can show that the effects are different for IT and non-IT professionals as techno-exhaustion have an effect on each outcome variable for non-IT professionals, but not for IT professionals. The influence of techno-stressors is mediated on each outcome variable through techno-exhaustion for non-IT professionals but not for IT professionals. Furthermore, techno-exhaustion is significantly higher for non-IT professionals, even if they use IT at work far less than IT professionals, and techno-exhaustion has a stronger influence on non-IT professionals' overall work exhaustion. We conclude that techno-stress research has to consider whether occupations use IT daily as core of their working process or solely as a supporting instrument in order to provide a detailed explanation for technologies inducing stress at work.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Online Social Networks as a Source and Symbol of Stress: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
This research examines the sources and consequences of stress when using online social networks (OSN). In a first step, the five OSN-induced stressors invasion, pattern, complexity, uncertainty, and disclosure are identified. In a second step, the Model of Continuous OSN Usage is developed in order to examine the influence of these five stressors. Therefore, the model is based on the Model of Adoption of Technology in Households and the Post-Acceptance Model. Results of an empirical analysis with 154 OSNs users reveal that 57 per cent of satisfaction and 64 per cent of continuous usage intention can be explained within the Model of Continuous OSN Usage. Notably, the five stressors have a higher strength of effect on satisfactions than the three attitudinal beliefs hedonic, utilitarian, and social outcomes altogether. In summary, the results offer a theoretical foundation for recent practical observations that OSNs are a source and symbol of stress.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Using User Personality to explain the Intention-Behavior Gap and Changes in Beliefs: A Longitudinal Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)

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The research reported in this article intends to investigate whether individuals a) update degrees of beliefs over time and b) transfer behavioral intentions into adoption behavior in a different manner based on their personality. Therefore, the personality trait dispositional resistance is discussed within the Integrative Framework of Technology Use. Results of an empirical longitudinal analysis (N=145) show that individuals update their beliefs based on prior beliefs and usage behavior differently in accordance with their personality. Results also reveal that individuals transfer behavioral intentions into adoption behavior differently based on their personality. Hence, we discuss our contributions to technology adoption research by highlighting the importance of personality traits when investigating technology-related beliefs and behavior over time. Results also include an assessment of the findings' practical relevance by identifying which individuals maintain negative beliefs over time and by identifying the high extent of technology usage as a possibility for overcoming negative beliefs.

Ott, P. and Laumer, S. (2012)
Adoption of Online Appointment Schedule Platforms - An Interview-based Case Study Series with Micro-Enterprises
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

View Abstract
Based on the Technology-Organization-Environment model we propose a model for explaining the adoption of online appointment schedule platforms by micro-enterprises in order to take the specific characteristics of this organizational type into consideration of technology adoption research. Using case study interviews from seven micro-enterprises we can show that the adoption decision is mainly influenced by the attitude of the entrepreneur, support and updates, scalability, test phase, training and compatibility. In addition, we identify a fourth context of marketing factors relevant for the adoption decision and not considered by the TOE-model so far. Moreover, we discuss whether rather individual- or organizational level adoption models are appropriate to explain the adoption decision of micro-enterprises.

Wild, U., Laumer, S., and Krönke, A.H. (2012)
The Bipartite Influence of Information Overload on User Resistance to Knowledge Management Systems
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

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This research centers on the relationship between information overload as an aspect of information quality on the one side, and, on the other side, user resistance to knowledge management systems as an aspect of an individual's decision process. While discussing this relationship theoretically we propose a bipartite influence of information overload as on the one hand it fosters acceptance of these system, but on the other hand also causes user resistance. By analyzing information overload in pre- and post-implementation phases of knowledge management systems we argue that information overload has an ambivalent causal effect as it can act both positively and negatively in relation to the point of time overload occurs or is expected. Therefore, based on existing literature we propose a research model and illustrate the relationships through results of a case study.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Empirical Evidence for an Individual's Dispositional Resistance to IT-Induced Changes
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

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As information systems (IS) usage is the missing link from information technology (IT) investments to the business value impact of IT (DeLone and McLean 2003), it is a significant issue for IS researchers and practitioners, if individuals resist using these systems. Several recent models have been developed in order to offer insights which perceptual beliefs foster user resistance. Results reveal perceptual beliefs as perceived threats, technostress, or switching costs as major determinants for user resistance. Nevertheless, user resistance has not been researched from a perspective of predisposed individual differences so far. Consequently, this paper proposes the new construct dispositional resistance to IT-induced changes. This reflects inclinations to resist any kind of IT-related change and discusses resistance from the perspective of individual differences. Within this approach, it is theoretically hypothesized, how this inclination influences perceptual beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Empirical results reveal strong impacts of the newly proposed construct on technostress.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2012)
The Shady Side Of Facebook: The Influence Of Perceived Information And Network Characteristics On The Attitude Towards Information Overload
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

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This research paper analyzes the impact of information and network characteristics on the affective, cognitive, and behavioral attitude towards information overload (IO) on Facebook. By using an information overload model and the data of 300 active Facebook users it can be shown that the various categories of attitude are influenced by different factors. The level of determination of the behavioral attitude towards IO is lower than the level of determination of the affective and cognitive attitude towards IO. The identified antecedents of IO explain up to 36 per cent of the variance of IO. Results indicate that affective and cognitive attitude towards IO are more influenced by these antecedents as the behavioral attitude towards IO. Furthermore, results reveal that the amount of information an individual receives is the major predictor of all three dimensions of attitude. Several implications for adoption research are discussed.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
When Social Networking Turns to Social Overload: Explaining the Stress, Emotional Exhaustion, and Quitting Behavior from Social Network Sites' Users
Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Barcelona, Spain
Best Paper Award Nominee

View Abstract
This research responds to a current phenomenon that individuals experience fatigue, while using social network sites, such as Facebook, which original intend to provide hedonic value to users. To explain this current phenomenon, we propose and evaluate a research model based on the stress-strain-outcome model. Focal point is the stressor social overload, which induces feelings of being emotional exhausted. For that reason, some users of social network sites start to get dissatisfied and report an increasing discontinuous usage intention. In addition, the research article provides evidence for the fact that the effect of stress on the two outcome variables satisfaction and discontinuous usage intention is fully mediated through strain. This is validated with an empirical survey with 523 Facebook users. Several implications for technology adoption research are discussed.

Schilling, A. and Laumer, S. (2012)
Learning to remain - Evaluating the use of mentoring for the retention of FLOSS developers
Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Barcelona, Spain

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The retention of newcomers is of vital relevance for initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS). Based on previous FLOSS research which repeatedly highlights the amount of knowledge developers build in the beginning of their project participation for their continuance and experiences from the organizational domain, we evaluate the use of mentoring as an appropriate knowledge transfer and retention strategy for FLOSS projects. Combining FLOSS and organizational literature, we develop our research model and hypothesize that (i) mentoring facilitates novices in their learning, which, in turn, increases their retention (ii) and (iii) that mentoring has direct effects on protégés' continued participation. The evaluation of 91 newcomers to the KDE project supports our hypotheses and finds a strong direct and indirect association between mentoring and novices' project retention. On the one hand our analysis shows that mentoring significantly increases novices' achieved level of knowledge after their ramp up period which, in turn, enlarges their project permanence. On the other hand, we find evidence that there is also a strong and significant direct association between mentoring and protégés' retention behaviour, which could be the result of the strong interpersonal relationship which is formed between mentors and protégés.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Train and Retain - The Impact of Mentoring on the Retention of FLOSS Developers
Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Milwaukee (WI)
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
The acquisition of new knowledge is a critical task for software development. IT companies spend considerable resources in the training of their employees to succeed in a continuously changing industry. Depending on the voluntary commitment of their contributors, initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) identified members' learning and their retention as vital. Although contributors' knowledge building has been repeatedly found to facilitate their project continuance, FLOSS projects are lacking operational advices on how to assist their members' learning. Drawing on previous literature which emphasizes project members' social interactions and their practical experiences to build new knowledge, we propose mentoring as a training method for FLOSS projects. Based on organizational experiences, we propose a measure to evaluate mentoring as an appropriate strategy for FLOSS initiatives to facilitate individuals' learning and to retain their contributors on longitudinal base.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Are we in the Right Profession? - Comparing Information Systems, Computer Science and other Disciplines' Professional's Perceptions of the Job Market
Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Milwaukee (WI)

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Based on an empirical analysis with 2,887 professionals with different educational backgrounds, this research shows that Information Systems and Computer Science professionals are more optimistic toward the labor market and available job alternatives than other disciplines such as General Business Management, Engineering, or Social and Humane Science. The results underline that professionals in the IT field have a bright future for their further career. In times of shrinking information systems and computer systems enrollments, this promising prospect can support both undergraduate and graduate schools activities to promote their courses. Several implications for this issue will be discussed in the paper.

Laumer, S., Blinn, N., and Eckhardt, A. (2012)
Opening the Black Box of Outsourcing Knowledge Intensive Business Processes - A Longitudinal Case Study of Outsourcing Recruiting Activities
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

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Knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) play an increasing role in business and economics as they serve as service providers for organizations outsourcing their knowledge intensive business processes (KIBP). Our literature analysis shows that KIBP as outsourcing objects remain considered as "black boxes". Based on the assumptions of the Resource Based View of the Firm, we shed light into the black box. Within a longitudinal case study, we present the motivation of a company outsourcing its recruitment activities since 2003 and the lessons learnt derived from the project during the last eight years opening the black box of outsourcing KIBP. Human Resources (HR) belongs to the back office function of organizations and recruitment in particular is considered to be a KIBP. The results of the case study indicate that business process standardization, identifying knowledge intensive sub-processes that provide value to the process outcomes and defining explicit service levels are key success factors for KIBP outsourcing. In addition, the results show that outsourcing KIBP can be beneficial for organizations and can results in better process determinants in terms of cost, time and quality.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Implementation of Large-scale Information Systems in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - A Case Study of Work-and Health-related Consequences
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

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Using a case study of a financial service provider, this research provides a next step toward an answer to the question about the importance of an employee's attitude toward a newly introduced information system in light of a mandatory usage setting. Based on the Commitment to Change Model, the paper argues theoretically and provides case study evidence that negative attitudes toward new information systems influence work-related and health-related outcomes. The observed case indicates that a negative evaluation of a new financial information system leads to negative consequences such as decreased organizational commitment and overall job satisfaction as well as an increased turnover intention and a higher number of sick days. The results implicate that work- and health-related consequences are potential dependent variables for technology adoption research and that practitioners have to address these issues during the implementation of information systems in organizations.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Who will remain? - An evaluation of actual Person-Job and Person-Team fit to predict developer retention in FLOSS-projects
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
Today businesses and private households worldwide rely on Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS). Most FLOSS-projects however are threatened in their existence due to a lack of sustained contributors. The early identification of developers who are likely to remain at the project is an eminent task for the management of FLOSS-initiatives. Previous research showed that the subjective judgment of individuals is often inaccurate emphasizing the need to objectively assess retention behavior. Consistent with the concepts Person-Job (P-J) and Person-Team (P-T) fit from recruitment literature, we derive objective measures to predict developer retention in FLOSS-projects. To evaluate our proposed measures we assess the retention of former Google Summer of Code (GSoC) students. The results show that students' prior level of project experience, expertise and communication intensity correlates strongly with their ongoing participation. Surprisingly, our analysis reveals that students with abilities that are underrepresented in the project do not remain considerably longer.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Identifying Resistant User Groups during the Product Lifecycle of IT Innovations: Proposing a User Transformation Theory
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Shanghai, China

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Motivated by the phenomenon of the digital divide, this research tries to identify resistant user groups in private household settings. Therefore, the concept of dispositional resistance widely studied in psychology, which reflects individuals' predisposition to check out something new, is transferred into information systems research. With the help of this trait, we investigate the groups within the diffusion of innovation theory, and try to identify resistant user groups. Surprisingly, the results do indicate that individuals, who are regarded as innovators, are not less resistant than others. We discuss reasons for this finding like the non-consideration of the point in time to which an individual gets aware of an innovation, or the speed to which an individual decides using an innovation. Based on these reasons, we develop a user transformation theory which clusters users and non-users of a technology in a completely new manner, as we differ between spontaneous and deliberate, as well as aware and unaware non-user. With data of 3,262 individuals, we empirically confirm that these groups differ concerning their dispositional resistance. Our research emphasizes the importance for future research to focus on these resistant user groups and their potential digital divide from society. Potential benefits of these new user group clusters are discussed.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Is Facebook Usage Becoming Stressful? Proposing and Validating a Theory of Stress-induced ICT Discontinuous Usage
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Shanghai, China

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Our research responds to an actual phenomenon that individuals experience fatigue while using popular social networking platforms as Facebook. Based on the stress-strain-outcome model, a theory of stress-induced ICT discontinuous usage is proposed to explain this phenomenon. The theory focuses on ICT-induced stress in voluntary usage settings in the household context. The theory provides an extended understanding of stress, as it focuses besides techno-stress on information, interaction, and social overload. The theory argues that an individual's perceived stress in terms of these four stress dimensions is a contributing factor for strain (e.g. emotional exhaustion), which in turn influences one's satisfaction with a technology and the corresponding usage behavior. As technology usage in households is predominately voluntary, we suggest discontinuous usage intention as new dependent variable to capture the phenomenon observed that individuals decrease usage intensity and to respond to current calls for understanding user resistance in a more appropriate way. Consequently, the paper explains how different dimensions of perceived stress mediated by strain influence an individual's resistance behavior. The proposed theory is validated with the help of an empirical study (n=523). Several implications for IT adoption research are discussed.

Wild, U. and Laumer, S. (2011)
Failure and Success of Knowledge Management Systems in the Financial Services Industry
Proceedings of the 2011 Quality Information in Organizations and Society (Pre ICIS siglQ Workshop), Shanghai, China
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
The success of information systems (IS) and especially knowledge management systems (KMS) is defined through the acceptance and usage of them. Directly after the implementation the initial success of such systems start with a relatively good acceptance and usage. When the first hype is over the problems of the systems become evident and the acceptance and usage dwindles. But what kinds of problems lead to the decreasing acceptance and finally to the rejection of the system? Our research in progress approach is intended to investigate those reasons for changes in the beliefs, attitudes and satisfaction of KMS users. Therefore one longitudinal case study is conducted in the financial service industry. The main objective is to elucidate inhibitors and enablers of KMS usage over time. The first period of investigation will be conducted before the implementation of a new KMS replacing an old one implemented in 1999 which has been identified as a major research of a declining job satisfaction within the organization observed. The second period of investigation is directly after the implementation and the third one after at least six months. Within our research-in-progress article we describe the theoretical background and research setting of our approach and present first results of the first data collection period.

Wild, U. and Laumer, S. (2011)
Adopting Business Processes - Distinguishing Characteristics of Business Processes and the Role of Standardization
Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP 8.2/Organizations and Society in Information Systems (OASIS) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Shanghai, China
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Venkatesh (2006) prescribed in his article some research scenarios which are very interesting to follow. Although about five years have elapsed little has been done to follow his suggestions to dig deeper into the processes' characteristics and their impact on employees' adoption and the overall individual adoption of business processes and business process standards. We also think that this is a worthy field of study to follow. We want to pursue four steps to better understand the adoption of processes and possible process standards. First of all we need to find out process characteristics that are relevant to and perceived by the users and therefore have influence on their daily use. First steps towards this work have been done by Volkoff et al. (2007) and Orlikowski and Scott (2008) who come from the field of organizational science and throw a specific view onto that topic. The drivers to adopt IT have been widely investigated (only to mention one: Venkatesh et al. 2003). We do not want to further investigate this field. Instead we want to investigate the adoption of business processes. As business processes are almost entirely supported by IT systems and the users are even lead through the process via workflow systems, it is hard to distinguish whether the users adopt the IT or process. We think that it is very important to delineate IT and process characteristics that influence their adoption (second step). As a third step we want to show empirically the impact of the characteristics of processes on their adoption. Additionally, standardization of business processes can prove profitable (Münstermann et al. 2010). But the role of standardization in the adoption of business processes is not quite clear yet. One can imagine that it is a mediator between the process characteristics and the adoption of business processes. We want to investigate this topic further in order to clarify the interrelationship between business processes, business process standardization and the adoption of business processes (fourth step). First, we will conduct an exploratory case study in a large company in the financial services industry to find out characteristics of processes that influence the workers daily tasks. In addition to the elucidation of those characteristics we want to delineate constructs and relations of IT and process adoption. This company introduced a new core banking system in 2008 and is currently but slowly changing its processes towards already developed process standards. This allows us to find out the role of business process standardization in the adoption of processes in a situation of process change. Therefore the case is a good opportunity to answer some of the related research questions and allows us to gain further deep insights into the above mentioned interrelationship. Additionally, a survey is planned in the financial services industry to empower and verify the findings of the case study.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Is the source strong with you? A fit perspective to predict sustained participation of FLOSS developers
Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Shanghai, China
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Despite the notable success of some Free Libre Open Source (FLOSS) projects, the overwhelming majority of FLOSS initiatives fail, mostly because of insufficient long-term participation of developers. In contrast to previous research which focuses on the individual perspective, we approach developer retention from an organizational perspective to help existing project members identify potential long-term contributors who are worth spending their time on. Methodically, we transfer two concepts from professional recruiting, Person-Job (P-J) and Person-Team (P-T) fit, to the FLOSS domain and evaluate their usage to predict FLOSS developer retention. An empirical analysis reveals that both fit concepts are appropriate to explain FLOSS retention behavior. Looking at contributor retention in Google Summer of Code (GSoC) projects, we find a moderate correlation with P-J fit and a weak correlation with P-T fit.

Wirtky, T., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Wild, U., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Going beyond operational efficiency in HR using IT - A Literature Review of Human Resources Information Systems
Proceedings of the 17th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Detroit (MI)

View Abstract
Leading academics claim that the management of human resources will be most critical in gaining competitive advantage. Today, the human resources departments (HR) are transforming themselves from an administrative cost-center to an internal partner delivering additional business value. In this transformation process, information technology (IT) could play a key role. Therefore, this paper aims to unfold both the current state of knowledge concerning the value contribution of information systems (IS) for the HR function and approaches that go even beyond operational efficiency. Reviewing nearly 8,000 articles, published in the proceedings of eight major IS conferences reveals that in total 35 articles exclusively deal with the topic of human resources information systems (HRIS) but only very few research approaches show, how HRIS could help to go beyond operational efficiency. Furthermore, the literature analysis identifies that approaches dealing with the IT support for HR planning processes are completely missing so far.

Laumer, S. (2011)
Why do People Reject Technologies - A Literature-based Discussion of the Phenomena "Resistance to Change" in Information Systems and Managerial Psychology Research
Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, Finland

View Abstract
In 2008, Ford et al. (2008) pointed out for management research, that "it is time to expand our understanding of resistance to change". Since 1947, when Kurt Lewin discuss the first time the concept of resistance to change within his field theory, managerial psychology researchers have extended, criticized, modified and re-conceptualized the understanding of employees' responses to change initiatives. Also information systems research has identified resistance to change as major reason for IT project failures. However, as our analysis in this paper shows, there are a lot of opportunities for IS research to research resistance to IT-induced change. Using a literature review the paper discusses different concepts of resistance to change from managerial psychology and IS research in order to provide a better understanding of resistance to IT-induced change. The paper highlights implications from managerial psychology research to update the understanding of resistance to change in information systems research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Dispositional Resistance to Change and Social Network Site Adopters' and Non-Adopters' Attitudinal Beliefs - An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, Finland

View Abstract
Using the Model of Adoption of Technology in Households (MATH) (Venkatesh and Brown 2001, Brown and Venkatesh 2005), this research investigates the impact of dispositional resistance to change on Social Network Site (SNS) adopters' and non-adopters' attitudinal beliefs in order to explain, why individuals resist using Facebook. Therefore, the study is based on psychology research and adapts a personality perspective to explain user resistance. Dispositional resistance captures an individual's inclination to react to change with resistance and is based on four dimensions named routine seeking, short-term focus, emotional reaction, and cognitive rigidity (Oreg 2003). By conducting an empirical study, the influences of the four resistance dimensions on individuals' attitudinal beliefs are analyzed within the MATH. The influence is investigated for adopters, actual non-adopters and long-term non-adopters in a separate way. The results indicate significant relations between the dispositional resistance to change and individuals' attitudinal beliefs, which vary for the analyzed groups. The same holds true for the R², as the four resistance dimensions explain up to 54 percent of the variance of individuals' attitudinal beliefs.

Lang, S., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Drivers, Challenges and Consequences of E-Recruiting - A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, San Antonio (TX)

View Abstract
Using a literature review of 80 journals and proceedings we identified 23 research papers discussing driver, challenges and consequences of e-recruiting. In total 14 drivers, 15 challenges and 9 consequences of implementing and using e-recruiting has been identified. Based on these results the paper introduced a model of drivers, challenges and consequences of e-recruiting and discusses implications for research and practice. The analysis reveals that e-recruiting will reduce costs for recruitment and selection, increase the number of suitable applicants, enable time savings for both organizations and applicants and improve the corporate image. These four consequences also have been identified as major drivers of e-recruiting projects. The identified challenges include the exclusion of potential applicants, the deception of applicants in e-assessment procedures, the security of applicants' data and low qualification of applicants.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Trend is our Friend - German IT Personnel's Perception of Job-related Factors before, during and after the Economic Downturn
Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, San Antonio (TX), Winner of the ACM SIGMIS Magid Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper of the Year 2011 Award
Winner of the ACM SIGMIS Magit Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper of the Year 2011 Award

View Abstract
With the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers the global economic crisis has reached one of its summits. Before that time CIOs challenged high turnover rates of IT personnel and recruiting, developing and retaining the IT workforce was one of the most important concerns of CIOs. However, the global economic development has changed on the one side the challenges of organizations, and on the other side also the perception of job-related factors of IT talent. Based on this development we compare major IT turnover constructs using three empirical surveys in 2008, 2009 and 2010 in order to discuss how the global economic development influences the perceptions of job-related factors and turnover intentions of German IT personnel. The analysis showed that job satisfaction and organizational commitment is decreasing since 2008, perceived job alternatives are increasing compared to 2009 and turnover intention has reached a maximum in 2010 compared to the two other years in question.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Technology Adoption by Elderly People - An Empirical Analysis of Adopters and Non-Adopters of Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the 10. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Zürich, Schweiz

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Nguyen, N. (2010)
Social Influence in Technology Adoption Research - A Scientometric Study over two Decades
Proceedings of the 2010 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), St. Louis (MO)

Laumer, S. and Eckhardt, A. (2010)
Why do People Reject Technologies? - Towards a Unified Model of Resistance to IT-Induced Organizational Change
Proceedings of the 2010 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), St. Louis (MO)

Laumer, S. and Eckhardt, A. (2010)
Why do People Reject Technologies? - Towards an Understanding of Resistance to IT-induced Organizational Change
Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), St. Louis (MO)
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Research on resistance to information technology is characterized by the fact that there is still no unified understanding about resistance to change of IT-induced organizational change projects (Vithessonthi 2007). In order to provide a deeper understanding why people reject technologies when introduced in organizations this paper develops a Model of Resistance to IT-induced Organizational Change based on micro-organizational change (Oreg 2006) and technology acceptance literature (Venkatesh and Bala 2008). The model posits that work, technology and process related outcomes of business process change are determined by a tri-dimensional resistance to change conceptualization (Piderit 2000; Oreg 2006) and evaluation of process and technology characteristics (Venkatesh 2006). Moreover these dimensions are determined by the context of the change and individual differences such as personality traits. First case study results show that the model is appropriate to gain a deeper understanding why people reject technologies.

Laumer, S. and Eckhardt, A. (2010)
Online Gaming Platforms to Apply for Jobs - Proposing a Research Model to Investigate Job Seekers' Behavior
Proceedings of the 3rd Academic Workshop on Electronic Human Resource Management, Bamberg

Laumer, S. and Eckhardt, A. (2010)
The Internet as Additional Secondary Source - First empirical Results for Differentiating the Impact of Secondary Sources on the Intention to use IT
Proceedings of the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Lima, Peru
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
The research about adoption decisions in a household context brought the factor of secondary sources as part of a normative beliefs construct to explain an individual's behavioral intention. The secondary sources included mass media as TV, radio and newspapers but not the largest global information medium, the internet. With billions of information provided by the internet in every minute it seems to be very likely that this factor depicts an important determinant for an individual's IT adoption decision as well. So for this reason the aim of our paper is to propose a research model to integrate the explicit influence of the mass medium internet on an individual's IT adoption decision and to discuss the relationship and interplay between attitude towards an information system, intention to use an information system and the secondary source "Internet". Furthermore a research description how the influence can be validated is provided and first empirical results are presented.

Schreiber, B., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2010)
Between Cost Efficiency and Limited Innovation - A Scientometric Study of Business Process Standardization
Proceedings of the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Lima, Peru

View Abstract
While process standardization is a usual component in companies' daily BPM toolkit research and practice still struggle to determine and realize the particular value and impact of process standardization for process performance especially independently from its drawbacks. As the basic idea of process standardization in research is spread across different fields a complete overview on this topic and its related benefits and drawbacks especially in Information Systems research is still missing. Therefore within this approach we provide a scientometric study including all publications of the JAIS ranking, the LSE ranking of IS top journals, the WKWI list for 2008 and the power publication approach for IS top journals. In total 80 peer-reviewed research articles of different fields such as information systems and management, different outlets, as proceedings and journals were identified and analyzed due to their methodology, relevancy, spreading and content.

Laumer, S. (2010)
Why do People Reject Information Systems? - An Investigation of IT Resistance and Personality
Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Doctoral Consortium, Pretoria, South Africa

Laumer, S. and Eckhardt, A. (2010)
Analyzing IT Personnel's Perception of Job-related Factors in Good and Bad Times
Proceedings of the 2010 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2010)
Why do they resist? - An empirical analysis of an individual's personality trait resistance regarding the adoption of new information systems
Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Pretoria, South Africa

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
Towards an Understanding of an Individual's Resistance to Use an IS - Empirical Examinations and Directions for Future Research
Proceedings of the 2009 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Phoenix (AZ)

Laumer, S. (2009)
Non-monetary solutions for retaining the IT workforce
Proceedings of the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Francisco (CA)

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Status Quo and Trends in E-Recruiting - Results from an Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Information Resources Management (CONF-IRM), Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
An Integrated IT-Architecture for Talent Management and Recruitment
Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS), Milan, Italy

Laumer, S. and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
Help to find the Needle in a Haystack - Integrating Recommender Systems in a IT supported Staff Recruitment System
Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Limerick, Ireland

Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Laumer, S. (2009)
Value Contribution of IT in Recruiting - A Multi-National Causal Analysis
Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Limerick, Ireland
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Despite an era of global recession qualified staff is still rare due to the demographical situation worldwide. Companies are forced to develop new cost saving recruitment strategies to ensure the necessary labor supply while recruitment budgets are pruned. In this area, the use of information technology creates interesting opportunities to contact candidates and process applications, not only more economically but also more quickly. The actual value of the contribution made by IT in HR is nevertheless still disputed. For this reason, we conducted an empirical analysis in three different countries examining the impact of IT on process performance determinants in staff recruitment. With the aid of three causal models for Germany, Austria and Switzerland we could confirm a positive impact of IT use on time and costs per hire as well on the overall recruitment process quality.

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Keim, T. (2009)
Does IT matter in recruiting - Eine länderübergreifende Kausalanalyse
Proceedings of the 9. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Wien, Österreich
Nominated for Young-Researcher-Award

View Abstract
Der weltweit fortschreitende Fachkräftemangel fordert von Unternehmen, neue Strategien für ihre Personalbeschaffung zu entwerfen. Dabei bietet der Einsatz von Informationssystemen eine interessante Möglichkeit, nicht nur günstiger, sondern auch schneller Kontakt zu qualitativ hochwertigen Kandidaten herzustellen. Nachwievor ist der tatsächliche Wertbeitrag von IS jedoch umstritten. Aus diesem Grund wird im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit mit Hilfe eines Kausalmodells für Deutschland, Österreich und die Schweiz empirisch belegt, dass der Einsatz von Informationssystemen in der Personalbeschaffung einen positiven Einfluss auf Rekrutierungszeit, -kosten und die Qualität des Personalbeschaffungsprozesses hat.

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Online Gaming to Apply for Jobs - the Impact of Self- and E-Assessment on Staff Recruitment
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
The process of recruiting employees has changed since the internet entered enterprises. From simply posting job ads and information on the internet to online application forms and holistic e-recruiting system architectures the way of recruiting has changed a lot. With the introduction of virtual worlds and the increasing number of online games this paper is discussing the next step of e-recruiting: online games to apply for jobs. With a single explorative case study the implementation of self- and e-assessment as online games could be explained. Furthermore with an SEM based on the empirical data of a survey with the Fortune 1,000 companies in Germany (response rate 19.1%) evidence for the motivation of companies to use online games can be provided. Perceived quality improvements, perceived cost savings and perceived time savings as well as perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are the most important drivers for companies intending to use online games in staff recruitment.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Hire Education For Firms - Successful IT Hires in Five Firms
Proceedings of the 14th SIM Academic Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Paris, France

von Stetten, A., Münstermann, B., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2008)
Towards an Understanding of the Business Value of Business Process Standardization - A Case Study Approach
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto, ON, Canada

View Abstract
What is the business value of process standardization? Alongside the development of industrial engineering of information technology and of business process redesign studied by Davenport and Short (1990), and Davenport's approach defining business processes (Davenport, 2005), other researchers offer initial insights into business process standardization research opportunities (Venkatesh, 2006). Based on this new thinking about business process standardization, this paper presents a step towards understanding the business value of business process standardization. A single case study with a global operating company was conducted to show how a successful standardized business process and a supporting information system can impact the process performance in terms of cost, time and quality. The process studied within the case study is the company-wide recruiting process. As the results indicate, the company has improved the overall process performance. The results provide an initial insight into an understanding of the business value of process standardization.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Recruiting IT Professionals in a Virtual World
Proceedings of the 12th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Suzhou, China

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Reconsidering Subjective Norm - A Multilayer-Framework for Modeling Normative Beliefs in IT Adoption
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto, ON, Canada

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Do as your Competitors Do? - Analyzing Competitors' Influence on the Non-Adoption of Information Systems In Organizations
Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Galway, Ireland

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Extending the Architecture for a Next-Generation Holistic E-Recruiting System
Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Information Resources Management (CONF-IRM), Niagara Falls (ON), Canada

Other Journal or Newspaper Articles

Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., and Luzar, K. (2019)
Robo-Recruiting: Status quo und Herausforderungen für die KI in der Personalgewinnung
PERSONALquarterly, 03/19, S. 10-15

Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., and Riedl-Wiesinger, B. (2012)
Top-Themen für Recruiter: Studie untersucht Personalbeschaffung in 500 größten Unternehmen Österreichs
Personal Manager - Zeitschrift für Human Resources (4), 14-16

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2011)
Zielgruppen, Prozesse, Personen - Es gibt viele Wege, das Recruiting zu optimieren
Personalmagazin (Sonderveröffentlichung "Online rekrutieren"), Issue 10, 4-7

Laumer, S. and Wiesinger, B. (2011)
Recruiting Trends 2011 Österreich - Trends und Herausforderungen in der Personalbeschaffung
Personal Manager - Zeitschrift für Human Resources (4), 14-18

Laumer, S. and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Outsourcing im HRM: Die "Make or Buy"-Entscheidung
Personal Manager - Zeitschrift für Human Resources (4), 46-49

Laumer, S. and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Recruiting Trends 2007
career service papers, Göttingen

Books

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., von Westarp, F., von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., and Kraft, B. (2011)
Recruiting 2011
Weka Verlag, Zürich, Schweiz. ISBN 978-3-297-19971-8. Erhältlich unter: http://www.weka.ch/shop/produkt_view.cfm?nr=19972011

View Abstract
Der demografische Wandel und der Fachkräftemangel sind in der Schweiz, Österreich und in Deutschland die beiden mit Abstand wichtigsten unternehmensexternen und damit nicht direkt beeinflussbaren Trends für die Personalbeschaffung im Jahr 2011. In Kombination mit dem Umstand, dass die Unternehmen aus der D/A/CH-Region im Jahr 2011 auch wieder mehr Personal einstellen wollen, zeigt dieses Ergebnis, dass die Wirtschaftskrise offensichtlich der Vergangenheit angehört und wieder andere Themen in den Fokus der Personalverantwortlichen rücken. Eines dieser Themen, das auch einen Schwerpunkt im vorliegenden Buch darstellt, ist die Nutzung von Social Media für die Rekrutierung. Differenziert man zwischen den verschiedenen Einsatzmöglichkeiten, so zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass die Unternehmen Social Media aktuell vordergründig nutzen, um Image-Werbung zu betreiben oder um nach zusätzlichen Informationen über bereits identifizierte Kandidaten bzw. Bewerber zu suchen. Insgesamt werden Social Media jedoch noch relativ verhalten genutzt, vor allem was die Schaltung von Stellenanzeigen oder die aktive Suche nach geeigneten Kandidaten betrifft. Eine weitere wichtige Frage, die sich den Personalverantwortlichen stellt, ist die nach der Effektivität und der Effizienz verschiedener Rekrutierungskanäle. Im Hinblick auf die Effektivität zeigt sich, dass die Unternehmen vor allem mit denjenigen Kandidaten zufrieden sind, die über Mitarbeiterempfehlungen, die persönlichen Netzwerke der Recruiter, Internet-Stellenbörsen oder die eigene Unternehmens-Webseite eingestellt wurden. Genau diese Kanäle weisen aus Sicht der Befragten auch ein sehr gutes Kosten-/Nutzen-Verhältnis und damit eine hohe Effizienz auf. Zwei generelle Trends, die sich seit vielen Jahren beobachten lassen, sind die verstärkte Nutzung des Internets im Personalmarketing sowie die zunehmende Digitalisierung des Bewerbungseingangs. Die diesjährigen Ergebnisse bestätigen diese beiden Entwicklungen. Sowohl in der Schweiz als auch in Österreich und Deutschland werden die meisten freien Stellen im Internet auf Unternehmens-Webseiten und in Internet-Stellenbörsen veröffentlicht. Die meisten tatsächlichen Einstellungen werden ebenfalls über diese beiden Kanäle realisiert. Der Blick auf den Eingang der Bewerbungen zeigt eine eindeutige Präferenz der Unternehmen für die beiden elektronischen Verfahren der E-Mail- und der Formularbewerbung, wohingegen die klassische, papierbasierte Bewerbungsmappe immer weiter an Bedeutung verliert. Entsprechend der Präferenz der Unternehmen gehen aktuell auch deutlich mehr elektronische Bewerbungen als papierbasierte Bewerbungsmappen bei ihnen ein. Das vorliegende Werk ist das zweite Rekrutierungshandbuch des Centre of Human Resources Information Systems (CHRIS) der Universitäten Bamberg und Frankfurt am Main. Es basiert auf den Ergebnissen jährlicher Umfragen mit Rekrutierungsverantwortlichen aus der Schweiz, Österreich und Deutschland. In Ergänzung zu den Umfrageergebnissen bieten dem Leser spannende Fallstudien mit großen und mittelständischen Unternehmen einen interessanten Überblick über die Personalbeschaffung in der D/A/CH-Region.

Book Chapters

Dugan, C. and Laumer, S. (2015)
Social Image Research in the Age of Selfies
in 15th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Bamberg, Germany, September 14-18, 2015, Proceedings, Part IV

View Abstract
Capturing and sharing images of ourselves and others has given rise to many applications and much human-computer interaction research. Social media has made it faster and easier than ever to share such photos, with "selfies", or photographs taken of oneself, invading popular culture. In this workshop, we will bring together researchers studying images of people in the context of HCI, whether thru mining such data, analyzing its use, or creating novel UIs for such.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Controlling der Rekrutierung: Erhebung von Kennzahlen entlang des Recruiting-Prozesses
in Praxishandbuch Controlling, W. Becker and P. Ulrich (eds.), Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, pp. 1-14

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Vornewald, K. (2013)
Bewertung von Self- und E-Assessments durch Kandidaten und Unternehmen
In: Diercks, J. and Kupka, K. (eds.): Recrutainment: Spielerische Ansätze in Personalmarketing und -auswahl, Springer Gabler Verlag, Wiesbaden, 19-32

View Abstract
Die Studienreihen "Recruiting Trends" und "Bewerbungspraxis", auf denen dieser Beitrag aufbaut, präsentieren erste Meinungen zum Thema Self- und E-Assessment und, weisen auf Vor- und Nachteile aus Unternehmer- und Bewerberperspektive hin. Dabei wird deutlich, dass diesen Instrumenten, trotz noch relativ geringer Verbreitung, von beiden Seiten hohes Potenzial zugerechnet wird. Dieser Beitrag geht nicht nur auf die Chancen von Self- und E-Assessments ein, sondern auch auf die gegenwärtigen Anwendungsbereiche in der Personalselektion und auf die künftige Nutzung.

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and von Stetten, A. (2012)
Personalbeschaffung im deutschen Mittelstand - Eine empirische Analyse des Status quo
In: Meyer, J.-A. (ed.): Personalmanagement in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen, JOSEF EUL VERLAG, Lohmar, 131-157. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Personalmanagement-kleinen-mittleren-Unternehmen-KMU-Forschung/dp/3844101462/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1339675191&sr=8-1

Laumer, S. and Eckhardt, A. (2012)
Why Do People Reject Technologies: A Review of User Resistance Theories
in: Dwivedi, Y.K., Wade, M.R., and Schneberger, S.L. (eds.): Information Systems Theory - Explaining and Predicting Our Digital Society, Vol. 1; in: Integrated Series in Information Systems, Vol. 28, 63-86, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6108-2_4. Online unter: http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-1-4419-6107-5/#section=960280&page=1

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Technology Adoption by Elderly People - An Empirical Analysis of Adopters and Non-Adopters of Social Networking Sites
In: Heinzl, A., Buxmann, P., Wendt, O., and Weitzel, T. (eds.): Theory-Guided Modeling and Empiricism in Information Systems Research, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg, 85-110. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Theory-Guided-Modeling-Empiricism-Information-Research/dp/3790827800/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1317916027&sr=8-1

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Maier, C. (2011)
Introducing a First Step towards a Holistic Talent Management System Architecture
In: Scupola, A. (ed.): Developing Technologies in E-Services, Self-Services, and Mobile Communication: New Concepts, IGI Global, Hershey (PA), Book Online: http://www.igi-global.com/bookstore/titledetails.aspx?titleid=47049; Chapter Online: http://www.igi-global.com/bookstore/chapter.aspx?titleid=54968

Eckhardt, A., Brickwedde, W., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Need for a Recruiter 2.0 for Hiring IT Talent - The German Software Manufacturer Case
in: Jerry Luftman (ed.): Managing IT Human Resources: Considerations for Organizations and Personnel, IGI Publishing. Erhältlich unter: http://www.igi-global.com/bookstore/titledetails.aspx?TitleId=45966&DetailsType=Preface

Eckhardt, A. and Laumer, S. (2010)
An IT-Architecture to Align E-Recruiting and Retention Processes
In: Information Resources Management Association (ed.): Electronic Services: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, Idea Group Reference, 1574-1592. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Electronic-Services-Concepts-Methodologies-Applications/dp/1615209670/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&s=books-intl-de&qid=1282736090&sr=1-4

Laumer, S. and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
What makes the difference? - Introducing an integrated information system architecture for employer branding and recruiting
In: T. Bondarouk, H. Ruel, E. Oiry, and K. Guiderdoni (eds.): Handbook of Research on E-Transformation and Human Resources Management Technologies. Information Science Reference, Hershey (PA), 275-288

Others

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2020)
Generation Z - die Arbeitnehmer von morgen - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2020 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2020
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2020)
Digitalisierung und Zukunft der Arbeit - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2020 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2020
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2020)
Employer Branding - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2020 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2020
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2020)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2020 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2020
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2020)
Social Recruiting und Active Sourcing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2020 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2020
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Employer Branding - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Digitalisierung und Zukunft der Arbeit - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Social Recruiting und Active Sourcing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
HOW ECM WORKAROUNDS EMERGE AND HOW TO AVOID THEM
Science2Practice Reviews - European Journal of Information Systems

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Employer Branding - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Digitalisierung der Personalgewinnung - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Social Recruiting und Active Sourcing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S. (2017)
The Digitalization of Work and Life: Empirical Studies of its Bright and Dark Sides
Habilitationsschrift, November 2017

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Employer Branding und Personalmarketing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Active Sourcing und Social Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Women in IT - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Bewerbung der Zukunft - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Morgen, A., Quesenberry, J., Laumer, S., and Outlay, C. (2016)
Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research
New York, NY, USA

View Abstract
It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the annual Computers and People Research Conference -- ACM SIGMIS CPR 2016. For more than 50 years, ACM SIGMIS CPR has engaged the academic and practitioner communities in understanding the issues related to the information technology (IT) workforce. Increasingly, IT empowers organizations and communities to improve the world around them through positive connection, interaction, and presence. The ways that we engage, understand and communicate around major events in communities, on the national landscape, and in the media has solidified a legitimate role for technology for years to come. As a result, we selected the conference theme of organizational and social movements enabled by IT. The papers, posters and panels within the proceedings address themes related to the recruitment, retention and turnover of IT professionals, demand for their skills and talents, their readiness for the workplace, and topics in IS education and management. This year, several papers, posters and panels specifically focus on organizational and social movements themes related to smart cities, the sharing economy, making Black lives matter, social media collaboration in virtual teams and emerging technologies. We also encourage attendees to attend the keynote presentation entitled "Organizational Design" by Dr. Scott Bernard who currently serves as the U.S. Federal Chief Enterprise Architect at the Office of Management and Budget within the Executive Office of the President. His valuable and insightful talk will guide us to a better understanding of a holistic enterprise architecture framework. We hope these proceedings serve as a valuable reference for computer and people researchers and practitioners in the coming years.

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Employer Branding und Personalmarketing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Best Practices und 'Big Failures' in der Rekrutierung - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Bewerbung der Zukunft - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Techniksprung in der Rekrutierung - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Active Sourcing und Social Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., Weinert, C., von Stetten, A., Wirth, J., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2015)
Bewerbungspraxis 2015 - Eine empirische Studie mit 7.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Weitzel, T., Wirth, J., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2015)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2015 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weinert, C., Wirth, J., von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2015)
Recruiting Trends 2015 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland, sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Finanzdienstleistung, Health Care und IT
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weinert, C., von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., and Eckhardt, A. (2014)
Recruiting Trends 2014 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den 500 größten Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2014)
Recruiting Trends 2014 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Health Care, IT und Maschinenbau
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2014)
Bewerbungspraxis 2014 - Eine empirische Studie mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and Eckhardt, A. (2013)
Recruiting Trends 2013 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den 500 größten Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2013)
Recruiting Trends 2013 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Automotive, Finanzdienstleistung und IT
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2013)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2013 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Maier, C., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2013)
Bewerbungspraxis 2013 - Eine empirische Studie mit über 6.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S. (2012)
Resistance to IT-induced Change - Theoretical Foundation and Empirical Evidence
Dissertation, Bamberg, 28.6.2012

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and Ganouchi, M. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg et Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and Ganouchi, M. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den 500 größten Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Recruiting Trends - Ein Rückblick auf 10 Jahre
Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Health Care, IT sowie Umwelt & Recycling
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Bewerbungspraxis 2012 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2012 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Recruiting Trends 2011 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2011)
Recruiting Trends 2011 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg et Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2011)
Recruiting Trends 2011 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., Kaestner, T.A., and von Westarp, F. (2011)
Recruiting Trends 2011 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Finanzdienstleistung, IT und Öffentlicher Dienst
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Kaestner, T.A., and von Westarp, F. (2011)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2011 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., Kaestner, T.A., and von Westarp, F. (2011)
Bewerbungspraxis 2011 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2010)
Recruiting Trends 2010 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg et Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Recruiting Trends 2010 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2010)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2010 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2010)
Recruiting Trends 2010 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2010)
Bewerbungspraxis 2010 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit mehr als 9.000 Stellensuchenden im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2010)
Recruiting Trends 2010 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Automotive, Finanzdienstleistung und IT
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2009)
Recruiting Trends 2009 Switzerland - An empirical study of the top 500 companies in Switzerland
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg and Goethe-University Frankfurt on the Main

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2009)
Recruiting Trends 2009 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg et Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2009)
Recruiting Trends 2009 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report. Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2009)
Recruiting Trends 2009 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and von Westarp, F. (2009)
Recruiting Trends Deutschland, Österreich und Schweiz
Board Report, 46-48

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2009)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2009 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2009)
Recruiting Trends 2009 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Aerospace, Bildung und Erziehung sowie Transport und Logistik
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2008)
Recruiting Trends 2008 Switzerland - An empirical study of the top 500 companies in Switzerland
Research Report, Goethe-University Frankfurt on the Main and Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2008)
Recruiting Trends 2008 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main et Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
Bewerbungspraxis 2009 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden im Internet
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and Lippert, J. (2008)
Recruiting Trends 2008 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2008)
Recruiting Trends 2008 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2008 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem Deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
Recruiting Trends 2008 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Energieversorgung, Gesundheit und Wellness sowie Informationstechnologie
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg