Publications by PD Dr. habil. Christian Maier

Journal Articles (Peer Reviewed)

Meier, M., Maier, C., Thatcher, J.B., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Shocks and IS User Behavior: A Taxonomy and Future Research Directions
Internet Research (ahead-of-print), (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

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Jarring events, be they global crises such as COVID-19 or technological such as the Cambridge Analytica data incident, have bullwhip effects on billions of people’s daily lives. Such “shocks” vary in their characteristics. While some shocks cause, for example, widespread adoption of information systems (IS) as diverse as Netflix and Teams, others lead users to stop using IS, such as Facebook. To offer insights into the multifaceted ways shocks influence user behavior, this study assesses the status quo of shock-related literature in the IS discipline and develops a taxonomy that paves the path for future IS research on shocks. We conducted a literature review (N=70) to assess the status quo of shock-related studies in the IS discipline. Through a qualitative study based on users (N=39) who experienced shocks, we confirmed the findings of previous literature in an illustrative IS research context. We integrated these findings to inform a taxonomy of shocks impacting IS use. Our studies identify different ways that shocks influence user behavior. The taxonomy reveals that IS research could profit from considering environmental, private, and work shocks and shedding light on positive shocks. IS research could also benefit from examining the urgency of shocks, as there are indications that this influences how and when individuals react to a specific shock. Our findings complement previous rational explanations for user behavior by showing technology use can be influenced by shocks. Our studies offer a foundation for forward-looking research that connects jarring events to patterns of technology use.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
A Dark Side of Telework: A Social Comparison-based Study from the Perspective of Office
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) , , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Telework became a necessary work arrangement during the global COVID-19 pandemic. However, practical evidence even before the pandemic also suggests that telework can adversely affect teleworkers’ colleagues working in the office. Those regular office workers may experience negative emotions such as envy which, in turn, can impact work performance and turnover intention. To study the adverse effects of telework on regular office workers, we apply social comparison theory and suggest telework disparity as a new theoretical concept. From the perspective of regular office workers, perceived telework disparity is the extent to which they compare their office working situation with their colleagues’ teleworking situation and conclude that their teleworking colleagues are slightly better off than themselves. Based on social comparison theory, we develop a model of how perceived disparity associated with telework causes negative emotions and adverse behaviors among regular office workers. We analyzed data collected in one organization with telework arrangements (N = 269). Our results show that perceived telework disparity from the perspective of regular office workers increases their feelings of envy toward teleworkers and their job dissatisfaction, which is associated with higher turnover intentions and worse job performance. This study contributes to telework research by revealing a dark side of telework by conceptualizing telework disparity and its negative consequences for employees and organizations. For practice, we recommend making telework practices and policies as transparent as possible to realize the maximum benefits of telework.

Meier, M., Maier, C., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Esports: Explaining Willingness to Pay for Streaming Services
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) (50:1), p.286-307, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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Online multiplayer computer game competitions—so-called esports—attract millions of spectators around the world and show spectator numbers comparable to the Super Bowl. Despite that, game publishers, which often organize these large-scale competitions, still struggle to establish esports as a profitable business venture. One way they can do so involves how they position fee-based streaming services for watching esports online. To draw spectators to their streaming services, esports organizers need to focus on attracting spectators with a high willingness to pay (WTP), and the streaming services need to satisfy spectators’ motivations. Grounded in uses and gratifications theory and a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, our results show that four different configurations of motivations relate to WTP for esports streaming services. We contribute by showing that 1) motivations form WTP in the esports context, 2) multiple interacting motivations explain WTP, and 3) spectators follow different rationales for their high WTP.

Reis, L., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Mixed-Methods in Information Systems Research: Status Quo, Core Concepts, and Future Research Implications
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) (51:1), , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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Mixed-methods studies are on the rise in information systems (IS) research, as they deliver robust and insightful inferences combining qualitative and quantitative research. However, there is much divergence in conducting such studies and reporting their findings. Therefore, we aim (1) to evaluate how mixed-methods studies have developed in information systems (IS) research under the existence of heavily used guidelines presented by Venkatesh et al. (2013) and (2) to reflect on those observations in terms of potentials for future research. During our review, we identified 52 mixed-methods papers and quantitatively elaborated the adherence to the three core concepts of mixed-methods in terms of purpose, meta-inferences, and validation. Findings discover that only eight adhere to all three of them. We discuss the significance of our results for current and upcoming mixed-methods research and derive specific suggestions for authors. With our study, we contribute to mixed-methods research by showing how to leverage the insights from existing guidelines to strengthen future research and by contributing to the discussion of the legislation associated with research guidelines, in general, presenting the status quo in current literature

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Gerow, J.E., and Thatcher, J.B. (2022)
Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) In Information Systems Research: Status Quo, Guidelines, and Future Directions
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) (50:1), p.208-240, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) allows researchers to study how configurations of conditions lead to outcomes and thereby create rich explanations of the dynamics of complex digital phenomena. To advance a discussion on QCA in the Information Systems (IS) discipline, this paper introduces the fundamental concepts of QCA and offers guidelines for authors on how to apply QCA to advance IS research. We also provide checklists for reviewers of QCA papers. We illustrate the application of our guidelines through two exemplar studies. In exemplar study 1, we focus on IT-business strategic alignment to study the influence of different forms of alignment on firm performance. Exemplar study 2 uses the perspective of the integrated technology acceptance model to explain an individual’s intention to use a digital assistant. The contrasting results of both studies highlight how to use QCA to derive robust and reproducible results. By doing so, we advance the goal of encouraging IS scholars to use QCA for developing sophisticated models that provide accurate depictions of real-world IS phenomena.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Repeated IT Interruption: Habituation and Sensitization of User Responses
Journal of Management Information Systems (39:1), p.187-217, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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Information technology (IT) interruptions are IT-based events that capture users’ attention and interfere with other activities. This study focuses on repeated IT interruption and task performance. We draw on dual-process theory and suggest that users may get used to repeated IT interruption, known as habituation, or may become hypersensitive, known as sensitization. We validate the research model based on data from a laboratory experiment with 100 subjects by using a multivariate latent growth model (LGM). With subjective and objective measurement techniques, we show how users respond to repeated IT interruption with physiological arousal, psychological exhaustion, and behavioral task performance. Our results indicate that user responses follow different patterns over time, revealing time-dependent effects of arousal and exhaustion on task performance. We contribute to literature by providing evidence that repeated IT interruption results in unique habituation and sensitization user response patterns compared to a single IT interruption.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Thatcher, J.B., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Trial-period technostress: a conceptual definition and mixed-methods investigation
Information Systems Research (ISR) (33:2), p.489-514, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A+)

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This study employs a mixed-methods approach to examine how trial use of an IT can induce stress that leads individuals to reject the IT. In our qualitative study (Study 1), we identify eight technostress creators encountered during trial use of a specific IT. Then, in our quantitative study (Study 2), we show that these trial-period technostress creators reduce user satisfaction and increase intention to reject. Also, we demonstrate that motivation to learn and personal innovativeness in IT, two individual differences, moderate the influence of trial-period technostress creators on the intention to reject. Our mixed-methods study contributes to technostress research by identifying the specific technostress creators that influence the user during trial periods and by articulating the nature of this influence. By doing so, we illustrate how the interplay of the context- and domain-specific individual differences influence the relationship between technostress creators and the intention to reject. We extend adoption research by connecting technostress creators to rejection of IT in the trial period of IT use.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Laziness as an explanation for the privacy paradox: a longitudinal empirical investigation
Internet Research (32:1), p. 24-54, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

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Purpose “Smart devices think you're “too lazy” to opt out of privacy defaults” was the headline of a recent news report indicating that individuals might be too lazy to stop disclosing their private information and therefore to protect their information privacy. In current privacy research, privacy concerns and self-disclosure are central constructs regarding protecting privacy. One might assume that being concerned about protecting privacy would lead individuals to disclose less personal information. However, past research has shown that individuals continue to disclose personal information despite high privacy concerns, which is commonly referred to as the privacy paradox. This study introduces laziness as a personality trait in the privacy context, asking to what degree individual laziness influences privacy issues. Design/methodology/approach After conceptualizing, defining and operationalizing laziness, the authors analyzed information collected in a longitudinal empirical study and evaluated the results through structural equation modeling. Findings The findings show that the privacy paradox holds true, yet the level of laziness influences it. In particular, the privacy paradox applies to very lazy individuals but not to less lazy individuals. Research limitations/implications With these results one can better explain the privacy paradox and self-disclosure behavior. Practical implications The state might want to introduce laws that not only bring organizations to handle information in a private manner but also make it as easy as possible for individuals to protect their privacy. Originality/value Based on a literature review, a clear research gap has been identified, filled by this research study.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., and Thatcher, J.B. (2021)
Qualitative comparative analysis in the information systems discipline: a literature review and methodological recommendations
Internet Research (31:5), p.1493-1517, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)
Highly Recommended Paper Award

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Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a promising, powerful method that is increasingly used for IS research. However, the Information Systems (IS) discipline still lacks a shared understanding of how to conduct and report QCA. This paper introduces the fundamental concepts of QCA, summarizes the status quo, and derives recommendations for future research. A descriptive literature review in major IS outlets summarizes how and why QCA has been used in the IS discipline, critically evaluates the status quo, and derives recommendations for future QCA studies. The literature review reveals 32 empirical research articles in major IS journals that have used the QCA method. Articles applied QCA to a broad range of research topics at the individual and organizational levels, mainly as a standalone analysis for theory development, elaboration and testing. The authors also provide evidence that most published IS research articles do not take full advantage of the potential QCA, such as analyzing necessary causal conditions or testing the robustness of QCA results. The authors provide seven actionable recommendations for future IS research using QCA.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
In-app advertising: a two-step qualitative comparative analysis to explain clicking behavior
European Journal of Marketing (55:8), p.2146-2173, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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Individuals only click on a very small fraction of the in-app advertisements (ads) they are exposed to. Despite this fact, organizations spend generously placing in-app ads without theoretical knowledge of how the structure and the semantics of in-app ads influence individuals’ clicking behavior. This study aims to identify how the processing of structural and semantic factors leads to clicking behavior. Based on the limited capacity theory, this paper proposes that the sequential processing of structural and semantic factors leads to clicking behavior. To mirror the sequential process, this paper applies a process-oriented configurational approach and performs a two-step qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) using 262 incidents of exposure to in-app ads. The results support the proposed sequential processing and show that neither structural nor semantic factors alone lead to clicking behavior. This paper reveals four different paths of sequential processing of in-app ads that lead to clicking behavior. The results show that individuals click on non-animated in-app ads even though these are perceived as irritating or privacy-concerning. When the in-app ads are animated, individuals do only click on them when these are not irritating, privacy-concerning and personalized. Organizations can use these findings to improve their in-app ads and generate more clicks. This study recommends that organizations place in-app ads in a prominent location, design them similar to the design of the app and use bright colors. The advertising message needs to have new and relevant information in a credible and entertaining way. Depending on the degree of personalization, organizations should use different sizes of the in-app ad and only use animation if it is unlikely that the in-app ad caused irritation or privacy concerns. Organizations can use these findings to improve their in-app ads and generate more clicks. This paper recommends that organizations place in-app ads in a prominent location, design them similar to the design of the app and with bright colors. The advertising message needs to have new and relevant information in a credible and entertaining way. Depending on the degree of personalization, organizations should use different sizes of the in-app ad and only use animation if it is unlikely that the in-app ad caused irritation or privacy concerns. From the in-app ad perspective, this study is the first to theoretically develop and empirically show the sequential processing of structural and semantic factors of in-app ads. From the methodological perspective, this study applies an advanced configurational two-step QCA approach, which is capable of analyzing sequential processes and is new to marketing research.

Mattke, J. and Maier, C. (2021)
Gamification: Explaining brand loyalty in mobile applications
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction (13:1), p.62-81, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

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Gamification is one specific way to increase mobile app users' brand loyalty. We propose that the frequency with which one uses immersion-, achievement- and social-related features relates to brand loyalty. To provide empirical evidence for this proposal, we obtained quantitative data from surveying 243 users on the mobile application Duolingo and conducted a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). We found that users need to frequently use immersion- and achievement-related features to result in high brand loyalty. On the contrary, we found users who infrequently use at least two gamification features have low brand loyalty. These findings extend the gamification literature by revealing an interaction between multiple gamification features and extend mobile application research by showing how gamification features relate to high and low brand loyalty. We also guide practitioners on how to identify users at risk to discontinue and reduce customer churn.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Tarafdar, M., Mattke, J., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Challenge and hindrance IS use stressors and appraisals: Explaining contrarian associations in post-acceptance IS use behavior
Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS) (22:6) , p.1590-1624, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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Post-acceptance IS use is the key to leveraging value from IS investments. However, it also poses many demands on the user. Drawing on the challenge-hindrance stressor framework, this study develops a theory to explain how and why IS use stressors influence post-acceptance use. We identify two different types of IS use stressors: challenge IS use stressors and hindrance IS use stressors. We hypothesize that they are appraised through challenge IS use appraisal and hindrance IS use appraisal, respectively, through which they influence routine use and innovative use. We evaluate our hypotheses by surveying 178 users working in one organization and analyze the data collected using consistent partial least square (PLSc). We find that challenge IS use stressors positively influence routine use and innovative use via challenge IS use appraisal. Hindrance IS use stressors negatively influence routine use via hindrance IS use appraisal. We then dive deeper into these findings using a two-step fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), identifying the presence of challenge IS use stressors and challenge IS use appraisal as necessary conditions for high innovative use. We also reveal that the presence of hindrance IS use stressors and hindrance IS use appraisal only influences routine use and innovative use in the absence of challenge IS use stressors and challenge IS use appraisal. We discuss the practical relevance and transferability of our findings based on a comprehensive applicability check. Our findings advance IS scholarship of IS use stress and post-acceptance use by showing how routine use and innovative use emanate from IS use stressors.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Joseph, D., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Turnback Intention: An Analysis of the Drivers of IT Professionals’ Intentions to Return to a Former Employer
Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ) (45:4), p.1777-1806 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A+)

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Recent statistics indicate that most organizations prefer to fill IT vacancies by rehiring IT professionals who previously worked in the organization. Less is known about what drives IT professionals to “turnback,” a term we define as returning to employment with a former employer. To explain this important and rarely considered IT job mobility behavior, we build on job embeddedness theory and on the concepts of shocks and job dissatisfaction from, among others, the unfolding model of voluntary turnover to develop the theory of IT professional turnback. We perform fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of data collected from 248 IT professionals to draw conclusions about the intention among IT professionals to return to work for a former employer, and develop a midrange theory. Our results reveal two configurations contributing to high turnback intention and three configurations contributing to low turnback intention. Our model distinguishes between work shocks, personal shocks, and IT work shocks. IT shocks are a new category of shocks specific to the IT profession. We contribute theoretically by theorizing a behavior relevant to IT professionals and explaining attributes driving turnback intention.

Pflügner, K., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
The direct and indirect influence of mindfulness on techno-stressors and job burnout: A quantitative study of white-collar workers
Computers in Human Behavior (CHB) (115:4), , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

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This study investigates how mindfulness at work influences white-collar workers’ technostress. Building on our understanding that perceived techno-stressors lead to job burnout, we apply the transactional model of stress and the model of mindfulness to understand to what degree mindfulness reduces the perception of techno-stressors and whether mindfulness mitigates the effect of perceived techno-stressors on job burnout. Our analysis of quantitative data collected in a survey of 134 white-collar workers who use information systems regularly at work confirms that mindfulness leads to lower levels of perceived techno-stressors, but does not also mitigate the effect of perceived techno-stressors on job burnout. The study contributes to technostress research by showing how mindfulness can help manage technostress but also by illustrating the boundaries of mindfulness in terms of technostress mitigation. We provide practical recommendations for applying our research results to develop technostress prevention measures and assess psychological risk factors at work.

Pflügner, K., Maier, C., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Personality Profiles that Put Users at Risk of Perceiving Technostress: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis with the Big Five Personality Traits
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (63:4), p.389-402, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Some information systems research has considered that individual personality traits influence whether users feel stressed by information and communication technologies. Personality research suggests, however, that personality traits do not act individually, but interact interdependently to constitute a personality profile that guides individual perceptions and behavior. The study relies on the differential exposure-reactivity model to investigate which personality profiles of the Big Five personality traits predispose users to perceive techno-stressors. Using a questionnaire, data was collected from 221 users working in different organizations. That data was analyzed using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). Based on the results, six different personality profiles that predispose to perceive high techno-stressors are identified. By investigating personality traits in terms of profiles, it is shown that a high and a low level of a personality trait can influence the perception of techno-stressors. The results will allow users and practitioners to identify individuals who are at risk of perceiving techno-stressors based on their personality profile. The post-survey analysis offers starting points for the prevention of perceived techno-stressors and the related negative consequences for specific personality profiles.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Thatcher, J.B., Sun, H., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Social Networking Site Use Resumption: A Model of Return Migration
Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS) (22:4), p.1037-1075, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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This research explains why individuals resume using social networking sites (SNSs) after terminating their use. Drawing on return migration theory, we developed a theory-driven model of SNS resumption that includes two novel antecedents of SNS resumption behavior: nonuse-related dissatisfaction and use-related satisfaction. We also hypothesize that dispositional resistance to change moderates the impact of nonuse-related dissatisfaction and use-related satisfaction on resumption. We used a mixed methods approach to refine and evaluate the research model. Study 1 used the critical incident method to identify SNS-specific antecedents of nonuse-related satisfaction and use-related satisfaction, allowing us to refine the research model. Study 2 used structural equation modeling to evaluate our research model using two three-wave surveys: one with recent ex-users who recently decided to stop using and delete their profiles on Facebook and one with long-standing ex-users who stopped using and deleted their profiles on Facebook a long time ago. We found support for most relationships in our model: nonuse-related dissatisfaction and use-related satisfaction drive resumption intentions, and dispositional resistance moderates these relationships. Furthermore, we found that the time elapsed since users discontinued Facebook moderated these relationships such that the effect of nonuse-related dissatisfaction on resumption intention is stronger for recent ex-users and the effect of use-related satisfaction is stronger for long-standing ex-users. Our findings advance the understanding of resumption, an understudied behavior of the IT lifecycle and IT use and acceptance research.

Reis, L., Maier, C., Mattke, J., Creutzenberg, M., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Addressing User Resistance Would Have Prevented a Healthcare AI Project Failure
MIS Quarterly Executive (19:4), p. 279-296, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into existing work routines involves invasive changes, and the resulting user resistance can lead to project failure. We describe a failed AI project at a large hospital to implement a cognitive agent and identify the root causes of the user resistance that led to the failure. Based on the lessons learned, we provide recommendations for addressing the causes of resistance for the three types of AI—automation, decision support and engagement.

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Human resource management and its impact on strategic business-IT alignment: A literature review and avenues for future research
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (29:4), , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A )
SIG GTM Best Paper Award Nominee

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From an information systems perspective, organizations striving to leverage a strategic alignment between Information Technology (IT) and business areas often underestimate the role of human resource management in creating business value. This literature review analyzes 71 scholarly articles to assess the role of human resource management in supporting the strategic alignment between business and IT. We identify the organizational role of individual human resources in strategic alignment, their contribution to more effective strategic alignment, and how human resource management supports such contribution. Based on these insights, we formulate propositions and identify avenues for future research.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Herd behavior in social media: The role of Facebook likes, strength of ties, and expertise
Information & Management (57:8), 103370, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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When do social media users click on sponsored content or intend to visit the website at a later time? A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) using arguments based on herd theory, strength of ties, and social distance shows that only “likes” from socially close and knowledgeable users can consistently generate click-through or view-through intentions. Considering social tie strength in a herd behavior context, the analysis of sufficient configurations for click- and view-through intentions provides a nuanced perspective on social media user behavior and social influence. For instance, click-through intention requires observing a “like” from a close person, while view-through intentions can also develop after observing “likes” from less close acquaintances, yet in the last case only if the user assumes the acquaintance is better informed regarding the sponsored content. In addition, a “like” from a close friend deemed better informed can even make a user click on a sponsored content that was not considered valuable before.

Maier, C., Mattke, J., Pflügner, K., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Smartphone use while driving: A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis of personality profiles influencing frequent high-risk smartphone use while driving in Germany
International Journal of Information Management (55), 102207, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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Smartphone use while driving causes car crashes, injuries and high death rates. To date, there is little research into what motivates frequent smartphone use while driving. In this study, we draw on psychological research indicating that personality profiles defined as constellations of multiple personality traits, influence individual beliefs and behaviors. We apply fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to survey data to derive profiles of drivers who use their smartphone frequently while driving. Our results indicate that personality profiles affect smartphone use behavior while driving and that three equifinal profiles, i.e. distinct constellations of the big five personality traits, influence frequent smartphone use while driving. Interestingly, a single trait can be low in one profile and high in another profile and, depending on the other traits, both profiles might reflect drivers using their smartphone frequently. We contribute to the literature that frequent smartphone use while driving is, to some degree, grounded in personality and that just looking at singular traits can yield misleading results. Complementing these theoretical insights by post-survey interviews, we can reveal distinct measures that reduce frequent smartphone use for each of the three profiles.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Bitcoin investment: a mixed methods study of investment motivations
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (30:3), p. 261-285, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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Bitcoin is a well-established blockchain-based cryptocurrency that has attracted a great deal of attention from media and regulators alike. While millions of individuals invest in bitcoin, their motivations for doing so are less clear than with traditional investment decisions. We argue that the technical nature of bitcoin investments gives it unique characteristics and, consequently, that we lack a thorough understanding of how this affects the motivations behind bitcoin investment. We use a mixed method approach consisting of qualitative (n = 73) and quantitative (n = 150) studies and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to identify seven bitcoin-specific motivations (profit expectancy, ease of bitcoin acquisition, support of bitcoin ideology, investment skills, risk affinity, anticipated and experienced inaction regret) and how configurations of them explain bitcoin investment. The findings reveal, among others, that some individuals invest in bitcoin because they support the bitcoin ideology. Contrary to the traditional investment literature, profit expectancy is not a necessary condition to the extent that there is one empirical configuration of motivations that explains that individuals also invest in bitcoin even if they do not expect profits. The results disclose non-trivial investment motivation configurations and lay the groundwork for future studies of the role of cryptocurrencies in society.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Technostress mitigation: an experimental study of social support during a computer freeze
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (90:8), p.1199-1249, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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In situations when Information Systems (IS) do not work as intended, using IS might hinder their users and let them perceive technostress; this then comes along with reduced user performance and high perceptions of exhaustion, among others. To alleviate these consequences, a mitigating behavior of stressed users is to seek social support to get instrumental (e.g., from the help desk) or emotional (e.g., consolation) backing. Using insights from psychology literature that suggest social support reduces the consequences of stressors, this paper investigates how instrumental and emotional support reduces the consequences of techno-stressors, such as reduced end-user performance, techno-exhaustion, and physiological arousal, caused by techno-unreliability such as a computer freeze. In a laboratory setting, measurements of skin conductance were used to evaluate the technostress of 73 subjects, manipulated by techno-unreliability and then treated with instrumental and emotional support. The findings indicate that social support increased end-user performance as well as reduced techno-exhaustion and physiological arousal. In particular, instrumental support directly influenced end-user performance, techno-exhaustion, and physiological arousal, whereas emotional support only influenced techno-exhaustion. Further, this study provides the first indications that the effect of social support on technostress depends on individual differences.

Maier, C. (2020)
Overcoming pathological IT use: How and why IT addicts terminate their use of games and social media
International Journal of Information Management 51, 102053, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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IT addiction scholarship indicates that pathological use of IT such as games or social media is on the rise. While pathological IT use, such as addictive behavior, can negatively affect private, social and work life, individuals displaying addictive behavior toward an IT are challenged to overcome their addiction. In this study, we aim to offer insights into how and why IT addicts stop their pathological IT use by terminating to use the IT. We interview individuals who have overcome their IT addiction to games and social media, finding that some IT addicts terminate their use of the IT without external support because they had a strong intrinsic or extrinsic motivation or because they felt stressed, frustrated or guilty. Other IT addicts required external support, contacting a therapist after unsuccessful attempts to quit or after experiencing a shocking event. This study establishes a new strand of research into ending pathological IT use and becoming an ex-user. We theorize IT addiction as part of the IT lifecycle alongside adoption, usage and discontinuation. We also offer practical insights into why some individuals can terminate pathological IT use on their own, while others require external support.

Tarafdar, M., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Explaining the link between technostress and technology addiction for social networking sites: A study of distraction as a coping behavior
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) 30:1, 96-124, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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This paper investigates under what conditions stress from the use of SNS is linked to addiction to the use of the same SNS. Integrating three theoretical strands-the concept of feature‐rich Information Technology (IT), the theory of technology frames, and distraction as a coping behaviour-we theorize two types of coping behaviours in response to stressors experienced from the use of SNS. These are ‐ distraction through use of the same SNS and distraction through activities outside the use of the SNS. We hypothesize relationships between stressors from SNS use, the two coping behaviours and SNS addiction. We further articulate the role of SNS use habit. We test the hypotheses through a three‐wave survey of 444 Facebook users with data collected at three different points in time. The paper's contributions are to theorize and empirically validate the psychological concept of distraction as a coping behaviour in response to stress from the use of SNS and, in doing so, explain why there may be a link between technostress from and technology addiction to the use of the same SNS.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
IS Reappraisal and Technology Adaptation Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study During an IS Implementation
ACM SIGMIS Database (51:4), p.11-39, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Employees have to adapt to newly implemented information systems (IS) because they are often perceived as radical changes or disruptions. To understand such adaptation behavior, IS research suggests that employees first appraise the new IS and second perform technology adaptive behaviors. However, while the psychology literature indicates that adaptation is a continuous process unfolding over time, previous IS literature treats adaptation towards IS implementation as a rather singular, noniterative process. As firms continue to implement IS, an understanding of reappraisal and the influence of technology adaptation behavior is vital to ensure successful implementations. Therefore, the present paper investigates reappraisal and the influences of four different technology adaptation behaviors. We conducted a longitudinal study and used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to validate our research model. The findings reveal that employees reappraise the newly implemented IS over time regarding perceived opportunity, threat, and controllability and demonstrate that technology adaption behaviors influence such reappraisal. One specific finding is that employees might get into positive or negative reappraisal loops. We thereby contribute to research by extending the adaptation behavior literature and add a new piece of the puzzle to understand how employees adapt towards newly implemented IS over time.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Hund, A., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
How an Enterprise Blockchain Application in the U.S. Pharmaceuticals Supply Chain is Saving Lives
MIS Quarterly Executive (18:4), (p. 245 - 261), (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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This article describes the MediLedger Project, which has built a blockchain ecosystem application that will prevent counterfeit pharmaceuticals from entering the U.S. pharmaceuticals supply chain. From the lessons learned, we recommend to 1) use a "benevolent dictator" and base governance on "consensus through collaboration", 2) to not store verified transactions on the blockchain but to instead store the verification on the blockchain, 3) to use zero-knowledge proofs to verify product and transaction authenticity while preserving full privacy 4) and to use blockchain application capabilities that are not found in traditional technologies, to fix ineffective IS landscapes.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Technostress and the hierarchical levels of personality: a two-wave study with multiple data samples
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 28:5, 496-522, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
Even though IS use has numerous benefits for users and organisations, such as improved user performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience technostress. Since technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads users to perceive it. Recent technostress research points to the relationship between personality traits and the perception of technostress as a research gap. Given that personality traits are structured hierarchically, we study how and which levels of user personality influence the perception of technostress. In developing our research model, we select personality traits from the three hierarchical levels of personality: neuroticism, personal innovativeness in IT (PIIT), and IT mindfulness. The results of 2 two-wave studies analysing data collected in an organisational setting (sample 1) and through mTurk (sample 2) reveal that all three personality traits influence the perception of technostress, with IT mindfulness having the strongest impact. This study contributes by revealing that user personality and, primarily, IT mindfulness influence the perception of technostress. Additionally, our findings reveal an inverted u-curved influence of techno-stressors on user performance, deepening our understanding of how the perception of technostress influences user reactions.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Perceived information sensitivity and interdependent privacy protection: a quantitative study
Electronic Markets (em) 29:3, p.359-378, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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From a theoretical point of view, previous research has considered information sensitivity in terms of potential negative consequences for someone who has disclosed information to others and that information becomes public. However, making information public could also have negative consequences for other individuals as well. In this study, we extend the concept of information sensitivity to include negative consequences for other individuals and apply it in a quantitative research study. The results prove that the extended concept of information sensitivity leads to a better understanding of privacy-related concepts especially in an interdependent privacy setting. We contribute to theory by defining the extended concept of information sensitivity and by drawing conclusions on how to use it in future privacy research studies.

Buettner, R., Sauer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2018)
Real-time Prediction of User Performance based on Pupillary Assessment via Eye Tracking
Electronic Markets (em) (10:1), 26-56, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)
Best Paper Award

View Abstract
We propose a method to predict user performance based on eye-tracking. The method uses eye-tracking-based pupillometry to capture pupil diameter data and calculates -based on a Random Forest algorithm - user performance expectations. We conducted a large-scale experimental evaluation (125 participants aged from 21 to 61 years) and found promising results that pave the way for a dynamic real-time adaption of IT to a user's mental effort and expected user performance. We have already achieved a good classification accuracy of user performance after only 40 seconds (5% of the mean total trial time that our participants took to complete our experiment). The non-invasive contact-free method can be applied cost-efficiently both in research and practical environments.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Information quality, user satisfaction, and the manifestation of workarounds: a qualitative and quantitative study of enterprise content management system users
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (26:4), 333-360, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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In this paper, we focus on a critical aspect of work in organizations: using information in work tasks which is provided by information systems (IS) such as enterprise content management (ECM) systems. Our study based on the IS success model, 34 interviews, and an empirical study of 247 ECM system users at a financial service provider indicates that it is appropriate to differentiate between contextual and representational information quality as two information quality dimensions. Furthermore, we reveal that in addition to system quality, the two information quality dimensions are important in determining end-user satisfaction, which in turn influences the manifestation of workarounds. Our study also finds that employees using workarounds to avoid an ECM system implemented several years is negatively related to individual net benefits of the ECM system. Hence, we conclude that when investigating large-scale IS such as ECM systems, it is important to differentiate among information quality dimensions to more deeply understand end-user satisfaction and the resulting manifestation of workarounds. Moreover, this research guides organizations in implementing the most appropriate countermeasures based on the importance of either contextual or representational information quality.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Work routines as an object of resistance during information systems implementations: Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 25:4, pp.317-343, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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When implementing new information systems, organizations often face resistance behavior from employees who avoid or underutilize the system. We analyze the extent to which such user resistance behavior is explained by users' perceptions of the technology compared with their perceptions of work routines. We developed a research model based on work system theory and evaluated it using a study (N=106) of a human resources information system (HRIS) implementation in one organization. The results show that work routines are an object of resistance during IS implementations. We identify perceived usefulness and perceived ease of executing work routines as perceptions of work routines during an IS implementation that have a strong influence on user resistance behavior. Additionally, our results show that the perceived ease of executing the work routines mediates the impact of perceived ease of use on user resistance behavior. In practice, our findings imply that interventions during IT implementations should focus on both the new technology and changing work routines.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
User Personality and Resistance to Mandatory Information Systems in Organizations: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Test of Dispositional Resistance to Change
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 67-82, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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This research is driven by the assumption made in several user resistance studies that employees are generally resistant to change. It investigates the extent to which employees' resistance to IT-induced change is caused by individuals' predisposition to resist change. We develop a model of user resistance that assumes the influence of dispositional resistance to change on perceptual resistance to change, perceived ease of use, and usefulness, which in turn influence user resistance behavior. Using an empirical study of 106 HR employees forced to use a new human resources information system, the analysis reveals that 17.0 to 22.1 percent of the variance in perceived ease of use, usefulness, and perceptual resistance to change can be explained by the dispositional inclination to change initiatives. The four dimensions of dispositional resistance to change - routine seeking, emotional reaction, short-term focus and cognitive rigidity - have an even stronger effect than other common individual variables, such as age, gender, or working experiences. We conclude that dispositional resistance to change is an example of an individual difference that is instrumental in explaining a large proportion of the variance in beliefs about and user resistance to mandatory IS in organizations, which has implications for theory, practice, and future research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Effects of Technostress and Switching-stress on Discontinued Use of Social Networking Services: A Study of Facebook Use
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) (25:3), p. 275-308, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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Although much research has been done on the adoption and usage phases of the IS life cycle, the final phase, termination, has received little attention. This paper focuses on the development of discontinuous usage intentions, i.e. the behavioral intention in the termination phase, in the context of social networking services (SNSs), where it plays an especially crucial role. We argue that users stressed by using SNSs try to avoid the stress and develop discontinuous usage intentions, which we identify as a behavioral response to SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion. Furthermore, as discontinuing the use of an SNS also takes effort and has costs, we theorize that switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce discontinuous usage intentions. We tested and validated these effects empirically in an experimental setting monitoring individuals who stopped using Facebook for a certain time period and switched to alternatives. Our results show that SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion cause discontinuous usage intentions, and switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce these intentions.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Who really quits? A longitudinal analysis of voluntary turnover among IT personnel
ACM SIGMIS Database 46:4, p. 26-47, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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In response to high turnover rates among IT personnel compared to other groups of professionals, IS research has focused on factors contributing to IT personnel's turnover intention; however, only few studies have focused on actual turnover. To shed more light on actual turnover behavior, this longitudinal study of 125 IT personnel theorizes and analyzes the influence of job-related beliefs on turnover intention and behavior over time. Our results confirm a previously documented turnover intention-behavior gap, finding that 91 out of 125 survey participants indicate a high turnover intention, but that only 27 reported actual turnover behavior within the following 12 months. We further theorize this turnover intention-behavior gap by identifying IT personnel's personality as an important moderating variable for this relation. Specifically, IT personnel more disposed to resisting change translate turnover intentions into actual turnover behavior more seldom than IT personnel less disposed to resisting change. Our study also focuses on how personality influences changes in IT personnel's job-related beliefs and whether or not actual turnover behavior has a positive influence on these beliefs. Our results show that more change-resistant IT personnel change their degrees of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more seldom than less change-resistant personnel and that IT personnel who quit their job change their degree of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more frequently. Our results also show that intentions are a more suitable predictor for less change-resistant individuals than for change-resistant ones.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
The impact of business process management and applicant tracking systems on recruiting process performance: An empirical study
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p.421-453, 10.1007/s11573-014-0758-9 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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This research focuses on the effects of different business process management components in combination with information technology on recruiting process performance. The results of a study of Germany's largest 1,000 business enterprises (response rate 13.1 percent) reveal that business process analysis, business process improvement and the usage of applicant tracking systems reduce recruiting process costs. Specifically, the cycle time of the recruiting process can be shortened significantly through business process controlling and process analysis, and by using an applicant tracking system that supports the design and evaluation of key performance indicators. Business process standardization combined with applicant tracking systems and business process documentation as well these systems used together with business process controlling have a significant positive impact on stakeholder satisfaction with the recruiting process. The general quality of the process can be improved through business process controlling as well as through a combination of applicant tracking systems and business process controlling. Our results reveal that several components of the business process management in conjunction with a supporting applicant tracking system have differing impacts on recruiting process performance. This paper discusses these diverse effects of business process management on process performance and draws implications for information systems success research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
Information technology as daily stressor: pinning down the causes of burnout
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p. 349-387, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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The research presented in this article aims to identify information technology-related stressors in daily work life that might contribute to burnout. We provide a detailed analysis of techno- and work-stressors, techno- and work-exhaustion, as well as the consequences of and interrelations among these perceptions. Techno-stressors and techno-exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work-stressors, work-exhaustion, and work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed model assesses whether using information technology (IT) or other work-stressors cause exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes in terms of low job satisfaction, low organizational commitment, and high turnover intention. The results of an empirical study with 306 employees show that IT usage causes exhaustion because techno-stressors contribute to techno-exhaustion, which in turn influences work-exhaustion significantly. Our results also reveal that work-exhaustion negatively impacts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention, whereas techno-exhaustion only indirectly causes these psychological and behavioral responses through work-exhaustion. Finally, post hoc analyses identify that employees who use IT as a supporting tool for their daily work process (such as HR workers) report higher levels of techno-exhaustion than employees for whom IT is the core of their work (IT professionals, such as software developers).

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The effect of personality on IT personnel's job-related attitudes: Establishing a dispositional model of turnover intention across IT job types
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 48-66, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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Research on IT personnel has observed that the major predictors for turnover intention are job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Joseph et al. 2007). However, less is known about how these predictors are determined and how they vary according to the different job types of IT personnel. Hence, we develop and evaluate a dispositional model of turnover Intention across IT job types as the first approach in IT turnover research combining the personality traits of the five-factor model (McCrae and Costa 2006) and the basic turnover model found among Western IS professionals (Lacity et al. 2008) into one research model. By the help of the model we analyze the role of personality in IT personnel turnover across four groups of IT roles: consultants, programmers, system engineers and system administrators. The results of an empirical analysis of 813 IT personnel reveal significant differences across the four groups in terms of personality and job-related attitudes. In terms of personality traits, system engineers rank highest in openness and conscientiousness, IT consultants in extraversion, programmers in neuroticism, and system administrators in agreeableness. In 50% of all cases, personality traits are significant predictors for job-related attitudes. Additionally, they indirect affect IT personnel turnover intention. Neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness are also important indirect predictors for turnover intention, whereas openness has only a weak effect and agreeableness no measurable effect.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 24:5, pp. 447-464, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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As the number of messages and social relationships embedded in social networking sites (SNS) increases, the amount of social information demanding a reaction from individuals increases as well. We observe that, as a consequence, SNS users feel they are giving too much social support to other SNS users. Drawing on social support theory, we call this negative association with SNS usage "social overload" and develop a latent variable to measure it. We then identify the theoretical antecedents and consequences of social overload and evaluate the social overload model empirically using interviews with twelve and a survey of 571 Facebook users. The results show that extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs. offline friends) are factors that directly contribute to social overload while age has only an indirect effect. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include feelings of SNS exhaustion by users, low levels of user satisfaction, and a high intention to reduce or even stop using SNS. The resulting theoretical implications for social support theory and SNS acceptance research are discussed and practical implications for organizations, SNS providers, and SNS users are drawn.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Transformation of People, Processes, and IT in E-Recruiting: Insights from an Eight-year Case Study of a German Media Corporation
Employee Relations (36:4), p. 415-431, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Purpose - There is only scarce research about the transformation of e-HRM in general, and of the e-recruiting function in particular. Further, there is not much known of the transformational implications for the related people, process, and information technology (IT). Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the transformation of e-recruiting caused by external influences outside of the organization, we report the results of an eight-year case with a media corporation in order to derive and describe five consecutive steps of an e-recruiting transformation model. Findings - We come up with five stages (transformation of tools, transformation of systems, transformation of workflows, transformation of tasks, and transformation of communication), each influenced by external developments and market tendencies (War for Talent, increasing number of applications, job market switch, globalization of job market, changing communication behavior). Research limitations/implications - This research contributes to literature by explaining the drivers of an e-HRM transformation and the different stages of this transformation process differentiated by the affected people, processes and IT. However, it only observes the transformation in one company, hence the transformation of further e-HRM functions in other companies might differ. Practical implications - We highlight both the transformation of e-recruiting and for the related people, processes and IT, so companies could observe their current status of e-recruiting transformation. Originality/value - This paper represents the first longitudinal approach observing the transformation of e-recruiting by describing different stages and external influences.

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise Content Management
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (5:6), p. 449-452, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (55:6), p. 453-456, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Analyzing the impact of HRIS implementations on HR personnel's job satisfaction and turnover intention
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:3), p. 193-207, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A )
One of the 5 most highly cited papers published in Journal of Strategic Information Systems

View Abstract
An in-depth case of an e-Recruiting system implementation is used while focusing on the level of Human Resource (HR) employees to research unintended consequences during the implementation of Human Resources Information Systems (HRISs). We develop a model that integrates the belief and attitude component of the technology acceptance literature with work-related consequences. We provide evidence for an indirect effect of attitudes toward the HRIS on turnover intention that is fully mediated by job satisfaction. Our results contribute to the literature on systems implementations and technology adoption by suggesting work-related outcomes as important additional success variables.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Bewerbermanagementsysteme in deutschen Großunternehmen: Wertbeitrag von IKT für dienstleistungsproduzierende Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 47-75, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Zusammenfassung: In stürmischen Zeiten für die Personalbeschaffung deutscher Großunternehmen aufgrund von Fachkräftemangel können Beschaffungsmanagementsysteme zur Gewinnung neuer Mitarbeiter wertvolle Unterstützung für die Rekrutierung leisten. Zur Untersuchung des Wertbeitrages des automatisierten Aufgabenträgers dieser Systeme, der sogenannten Bewerbermanagementsysteme, wurden Personalverantwortliche der 1.000 größten Unternehmen in Deutschland befragt. Auf Basis der Ergebnisse dieser repräsentativen Umfrage konnten folgende Erkenntnisse für den Wertbeitrag von Bewerbermanagementsystemen als Teil dienstleistungsproduzierender Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme gewonnen werden. Durch den Einsatz dieser Systeme werden primär Zeitreduktionen innerhalb einzelner Prozessabschnitte der Personalbeschaffung und eine Kostenreduktion für die interne Bearbeitung von Bewerbungen erreicht. Eine Verbesserung der Qualität der eingestellten Wunschkandidaten kann hingegen nicht realisiert werden. Es bestehen keine Unterschiede beim Wertbeitrag für das unternehmerische Leistungs- und Lenkungssystem. Auch die Unternehmensgröße hat keinen Einfluss auf denWertbeitrag der Bewerbermanagementsysteme.