Publications by Prof. Dr. Sven Laumer

Journal Articles (Peer Reviewed)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Thatcher, J.B., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Trial-period technostress: a conceptual definition and mixed-methods investigation
Information Systems Research (ISR) , , https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.2021.1047, https://www.uni-bamberg.de/isdl/veroeffentlichungen/preprint-manuskripte/ (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A+)

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This study employs a mixed-methods approach to examine how trial use of an IT can induce stress that leads individuals to reject the IT. In our qualitative study (Study 1), we identify eight technostress creators encountered during trial use of a specific IT. Then, in our quantitative study (Study 2), we show that these trial-period technostress creators reduce user satisfaction and increase intention to reject. Also, we demonstrate that motivation to learn and personal innovativeness in IT, two individual differences, moderate the influence of trial-period technostress creators on the intention to reject. Our mixed-methods study contributes to technostress research by identifying the specific technostress creators that influence the user during trial periods and by articulating the nature of this influence. By doing so, we illustrate how the interplay of the context- and domain-specific individual differences influence the relationship between technostress creators and the intention to reject. We extend adoption research by connecting technostress creators to rejection of IT in the trial period of IT use.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Laziness as an explanation for the privacy paradox: a longitudinal empirical investigation
Internet Research , , https://doi.org/10.1108/INTR-10-2019-0439 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

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Purpose “Smart devices think you're “too lazy” to opt out of privacy defaults” was the headline of a recent news report indicating that individuals might be too lazy to stop disclosing their private information and therefore to protect their information privacy. In current privacy research, privacy concerns and self-disclosure are central constructs regarding protecting privacy. One might assume that being concerned about protecting privacy would lead individuals to disclose less personal information. However, past research has shown that individuals continue to disclose personal information despite high privacy concerns, which is commonly referred to as the privacy paradox. This study introduces laziness as a personality trait in the privacy context, asking to what degree individual laziness influences privacy issues. Design/methodology/approach After conceptualizing, defining and operationalizing laziness, the authors analyzed information collected in a longitudinal empirical study and evaluated the results through structural equation modeling. Findings The findings show that the privacy paradox holds true, yet the level of laziness influences it. In particular, the privacy paradox applies to very lazy individuals but not to less lazy individuals. Research limitations/implications With these results one can better explain the privacy paradox and self-disclosure behavior. Practical implications The state might want to introduce laws that not only bring organizations to handle information in a private manner but also make it as easy as possible for individuals to protect their privacy. Originality/value Based on a literature review, a clear research gap has been identified, filled by this research study.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Tarafdar, M., Mattke, J., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Challenge and hindrance IS use stressors and appraisals: Explaining contrarian associations in post-acceptance IS use behavior
Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS) , , https://www.uni-bamberg.de/isdl/veroeffentlichungen/preprint-manuskripte/ (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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Post-acceptance IS use is the key to leveraging value from IS investments. However, it also poses many demands on the user. Drawing on the challenge-hindrance stressor framework, this study develops a theory to explain how and why IS use stressors influence post-acceptance use. We identify two different types of IS use stressors: challenge IS use stressors and hindrance IS use stressors. We hypothesize that they are appraised through challenge IS use appraisal and hindrance IS use appraisal respectively, through which they influence routine use and innovative use. We evaluate our hypotheses by surveying 178 users working in one organization and analyze the data collected using consistent partial least square (PLSc). We find that challenge IS use stressors positively influence routine use and innovative use via challenge IS use appraisal. Hindrance IS use stressors negatively influence routine use via hindrance IS use appraisal. We then dive deeper into these findings using a two-step fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), identifying the presence of challenge IS use stressors and challenge IS use appraisal as necessary conditions for high innovative use. We also reveal that the presence of hindrance IS use stressors and hindrance IS use appraisal only influences routine use and innovative use in the absence of challenge IS use stressors and challenge IS use appraisal. We discuss the practical relevance and transferability of our findings based on a comprehensive applicability check. Our findings advance IS scholarship of IS use stress and post-acceptance use by showing how routine use and innovative use emanate from IS use stressors.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Joseph, D., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Turnback Intention: An Analysis of the Drivers of IT Professionals’ Intention to Return to a Former Employer
Forthcoming in: Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ) (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A+)

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Recent statistics indicate that most organizations prefer to fill IT vacancies by rehiring an IT professional who had previously worked in the organization. Less is known about what drives IT professionals to “turnback,” a term we define as returning to working for a former employer. To explain this important and rarely considered IT job mobility behavior, we build on job embeddedness theory and on the concepts of shocks and job dissatisfaction from, among others, the unfolding model of voluntary turnover to develop the theory of IT professional turnback. We perform fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of data collected from 248 IT professionals to draw conclusions about the intentions among IT professionals to return to work for a former employer, and develop a mid-range theory. Our results reveal two configurations contributing to high turnback intentions and three configurations contributing to low turnback intentions. Our model distinguishes between work shocks, personal shocks, and IT work shocks. IT shocks are a new category of shocks specific to the IT profession. We contribute theoretically by theorizing a behavior relevant to IT professionals and explaining attributes contributing to turnback intention.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Thatcher, J.B., Sun, H., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Social Networking Site Use Resumption: A Model of Return Migration
Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS) (22:4), p.1037-1075, https://doi.org/10.17705/1jais.00688 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Human resource management and its impact on strategic business-IT alignment: A literature review and avenues for future research
Forthcoming in: The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A )

View Abstract
From an information systems perspective, organizations striving to leverage a strategic alignment between Information Technology (IT) and business areas often underestimate the role of human resource management in creating business value. This literature review analyzes 71 scholarly articles to assess the role of human resource management in supporting the strategic alignment between business and IT. We identify the organizational role of individual human resources in strategic alignment, their contribution to more effective strategic alignment, and how human resource management supports such contribution. Based on these insights, we formulate propositions and identify avenues for future research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
IT Management and Change at an Energy Firm: A Teaching Case on Strategic Alignment and Business Process Management
Journal of Information Technology Teaching Cases (JITTC) (11:1), 48-61, https://doi.org/10.1177/2043886920935897 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

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This teaching case illustrates how important concepts and tools of IS management practice and literature are used in a young firm, challenged by strong growth and the need to integrate business processes and IT systems. The case is typical of many smaller organizations that are substantially different from large firms. Among others, the firm does not have a dedicated IT unit. As most of our IT management knowledge stems from research in large companies, the teaching case demonstrates and combines many proven IT management methods, and how they can be applied in smaller firms as well. Students will learn about strategic alignment, business process management, work system theory, business process management, and notation, and user resistance during IT-induced change projects in small- and medium-sized organizations.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Technostress mitigation: an experimental study of social support during a computer freeze
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (90:8), p.1199-1249, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11573-020-00986-y (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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In situations when Information Systems (IS) do not work as intended, using IS might hinder their users and let them perceive technostress; this then comes along with reduced user performance and high perceptions of exhaustion, among others. To alleviate these consequences, a mitigating behavior of stressed users is to seek social support to get instrumental (e.g., from the help desk) or emotional (e.g., consolation) backing. Using insights from psychology literature that suggest social support reduces the consequences of stressors, this paper investigates how instrumental and emotional support reduces the consequences of techno-stressors, such as reduced end-user performance, techno-exhaustion, and physiological arousal, caused by techno-unreliability such as a computer freeze. In a laboratory setting, measurements of skin conductance were used to evaluate the technostress of 73 subjects, manipulated by techno-unreliability and then treated with instrumental and emotional support. The findings indicate that social support increased end-user performance as well as reduced techno-exhaustion and physiological arousal. In particular, instrumental support directly influenced end-user performance, techno-exhaustion, and physiological arousal, whereas emotional support only influenced techno-exhaustion. Further, this study provides the first indications that the effect of social support on technostress depends on individual differences.

Tarafdar, M., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Explaining the link between technostress and technology addiction for social networking sites: A study of distraction as a coping behavior
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) 30:1, 96-124, https://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12253 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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This paper investigates under what conditions stress from the use of SNS is linked to addiction to the use of the same SNS. Integrating three theoretical strands-the concept of feature‐rich Information Technology (IT), the theory of technology frames, and distraction as a coping behaviour-we theorize two types of coping behaviours in response to stressors experienced from the use of SNS. These are ‐ distraction through use of the same SNS and distraction through activities outside the use of the SNS. We hypothesize relationships between stressors from SNS use, the two coping behaviours and SNS addiction. We further articulate the role of SNS use habit. We test the hypotheses through a three‐wave survey of 444 Facebook users with data collected at three different points in time. The paper's contributions are to theorize and empirically validate the psychological concept of distraction as a coping behaviour in response to stress from the use of SNS and, in doing so, explain why there may be a link between technostress from and technology addiction to the use of the same SNS.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
IS Reappraisal and Technology Adaptation Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study During an IS Implementation
ACM SIGMIS Database (51:4), p.11-39, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3433148.3433151 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Employees have to adapt to newly implemented information systems (IS) because they are often perceived as radical changes or disruptions. To understand such adaptation behavior, IS research suggests that employees first appraise the new IS and second perform technology adaptive behaviors. However, while the psychology literature indicates that adaptation is a continuous process unfolding over time, previous IS literature treats adaptation towards IS implementation as a rather singular, noniterative process. As firms continue to implement IS, an understanding of reappraisal and the influence of technology adaptation behavior is vital to ensure successful implementations. Therefore, the present paper investigates reappraisal and the influences of four different technology adaptation behaviors. We conducted a longitudinal study and used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to validate our research model. The findings reveal that employees reappraise the newly implemented IS over time regarding perceived opportunity, threat, and controllability and demonstrate that technology adaption behaviors influence such reappraisal. One specific finding is that employees might get into positive or negative reappraisal loops. We thereby contribute to research by extending the adaptation behavior literature and add a new piece of the puzzle to understand how employees adapt towards newly implemented IS over time.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Technostress and the hierarchical levels of personality: a two-wave study with multiple data samples
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 28:5, 496-522, https://doi.org/10.1080/0960085X.2019.1614739 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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Even though IS use has numerous benefits for users and organisations, such as improved user performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience technostress. Since technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads users to perceive it. Recent technostress research points to the relationship between personality traits and the perception of technostress as a research gap. Given that personality traits are structured hierarchically, we study how and which levels of user personality influence the perception of technostress. In developing our research model, we select personality traits from the three hierarchical levels of personality: neuroticism, personal innovativeness in IT (PIIT), and IT mindfulness. The results of 2 two-wave studies analysing data collected in an organisational setting (sample 1) and through mTurk (sample 2) reveal that all three personality traits influence the perception of technostress, with IT mindfulness having the strongest impact. This study contributes by revealing that user personality and, primarily, IT mindfulness influence the perception of technostress. Additionally, our findings reveal an inverted u-curved influence of techno-stressors on user performance, deepening our understanding of how the perception of technostress influences user reactions.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Perceived information sensitivity and interdependent privacy protection: a quantitative study
Electronic Markets (em) 29:3, p.359-378, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-019-00335-0 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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From a theoretical point of view, previous research has considered information sensitivity in terms of potential negative consequences for someone who has disclosed information to others and that information becomes public. However, making information public could also have negative consequences for other individuals as well. In this study, we extend the concept of information sensitivity to include negative consequences for other individuals and apply it in a quantitative research study. The results prove that the extended concept of information sensitivity leads to a better understanding of privacy-related concepts especially in an interdependent privacy setting. We contribute to theory by defining the extended concept of information sensitivity and by drawing conclusions on how to use it in future privacy research studies.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Information quality, user satisfaction, and the manifestation of workarounds: a qualitative and quantitative study of enterprise content management system users
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (26:4), 333-360, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41303-016-0029-7 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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In this paper, we focus on a critical aspect of work in organizations: using information in work tasks which is provided by information systems (IS) such as enterprise content management (ECM) systems. Our study based on the IS success model, 34 interviews, and an empirical study of 247 ECM system users at a financial service provider indicates that it is appropriate to differentiate between contextual and representational information quality as two information quality dimensions. Furthermore, we reveal that in addition to system quality, the two information quality dimensions are important in determining end-user satisfaction, which in turn influences the manifestation of workarounds. Our study also finds that employees using workarounds to avoid an ECM system implemented several years is negatively related to individual net benefits of the ECM system. Hence, we conclude that when investigating large-scale IS such as ECM systems, it is important to differentiate among information quality dimensions to more deeply understand end-user satisfaction and the resulting manifestation of workarounds. Moreover, this research guides organizations in implementing the most appropriate countermeasures based on the importance of either contextual or representational information quality.

Shareef, M., Dwivedi, Y.K., Laumer, S., and Archer, N. (2016)
Citizens' Adoption Behavior of Mobile Government (mGov): A Cross-Cultural Study
Information Systems Management 33:3, 268-283, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10580530.2016.1188573 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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This study aims to address the paradigms of consumers' adoption behavior for mobile government, posits the factors which pursue citizens' intention to adopt mobile government services, and reveals the impact of cultural dimensions in perceiving driving factors of mobile government adoption. The mobile government adoption model was developed and tested among users of three different countries, namely Bangladesh, Canada, and Germany. The finding suggests the rationale that cross-cultural differences impact consumers' perception of mobile government adoption behavior.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Work routines as an object of resistance during information systems implementations: Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 25:4, pp.317-343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2016.1 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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When implementing new information systems, organizations often face resistance behavior from employees who avoid or underutilize the system. We analyze the extent to which such user resistance behavior is explained by users' perceptions of the technology compared with their perceptions of work routines. We developed a research model based on work system theory and evaluated it using a study (N=106) of a human resources information system (HRIS) implementation in one organization. The results show that work routines are an object of resistance during IS implementations. We identify perceived usefulness and perceived ease of executing work routines as perceptions of work routines during an IS implementation that have a strong influence on user resistance behavior. Additionally, our results show that the perceived ease of executing the work routines mediates the impact of perceived ease of use on user resistance behavior. In practice, our findings imply that interventions during IT implementations should focus on both the new technology and changing work routines.

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
On the Untapped Value of IT in HRM - a Literature Review
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) 38:2, , http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol38/iss1/2 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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The "war for talent" is still on. Annually conducted surveys have indicated for years that one third of all organizations are unable to fill vacant job positions with suitable candidates. Responding to these and other challenges, human resource management (HRM) is expected to transform itself. General opinion holds that the HRM transformation has just begun and that the potential of IT in HRM is not yet fully exploited. Examining the value potential of IT in HRM, existing IS research predominately studies the impact of IT on HRM. We contribute by examining the reverse impact in three steps. First, we use Thompson's theory of organizations in action to examine the expected impact of the HRM transformation on IT ("to-be" situation). Second, we use Kohli and Grover's IT value typology and review 20 years of the publication history ("as-is" situation). Finally, we relate expectations to actual review findings. We find that the HRM transformation should lead to a major shift in technology type used in organizations. However, this shift is not recognized yet, which is why our literature review reveals considerable unaddressed value potential of IT in HRM. We finish the paper by outlining IS research avenues in the context of HRM.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
User Personality and Resistance to Mandatory Information Systems in Organizations: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Test of Dispositional Resistance to Change
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 67-82, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2015.17 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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This research is driven by the assumption made in several user resistance studies that employees are generally resistant to change. It investigates the extent to which employees' resistance to IT-induced change is caused by individuals' predisposition to resist change. We develop a model of user resistance that assumes the influence of dispositional resistance to change on perceptual resistance to change, perceived ease of use, and usefulness, which in turn influence user resistance behavior. Using an empirical study of 106 HR employees forced to use a new human resources information system, the analysis reveals that 17.0 to 22.1 percent of the variance in perceived ease of use, usefulness, and perceptual resistance to change can be explained by the dispositional inclination to change initiatives. The four dimensions of dispositional resistance to change - routine seeking, emotional reaction, short-term focus and cognitive rigidity - have an even stronger effect than other common individual variables, such as age, gender, or working experiences. We conclude that dispositional resistance to change is an example of an individual difference that is instrumental in explaining a large proportion of the variance in beliefs about and user resistance to mandatory IS in organizations, which has implications for theory, practice, and future research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Effects of Technostress and Switching-stress on Discontinued Use of Social Networking Services: A Study of Facebook Use
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) (25:3), p. 275-308, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/isj.12068 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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Although much research has been done on the adoption and usage phases of the IS life cycle, the final phase, termination, has received little attention. This paper focuses on the development of discontinuous usage intentions, i.e. the behavioral intention in the termination phase, in the context of social networking services (SNSs), where it plays an especially crucial role. We argue that users stressed by using SNSs try to avoid the stress and develop discontinuous usage intentions, which we identify as a behavioral response to SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion. Furthermore, as discontinuing the use of an SNS also takes effort and has costs, we theorize that switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce discontinuous usage intentions. We tested and validated these effects empirically in an experimental setting monitoring individuals who stopped using Facebook for a certain time period and switched to alternatives. Our results show that SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion cause discontinuous usage intentions, and switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce these intentions.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Who really quits? A longitudinal analysis of voluntary turnover among IT personnel
ACM SIGMIS Database 46:4, p. 26-47, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2843824.2843827 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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In response to high turnover rates among IT personnel compared to other groups of professionals, IS research has focused on factors contributing to IT personnel's turnover intention; however, only few studies have focused on actual turnover. To shed more light on actual turnover behavior, this longitudinal study of 125 IT personnel theorizes and analyzes the influence of job-related beliefs on turnover intention and behavior over time. Our results confirm a previously documented turnover intention-behavior gap, finding that 91 out of 125 survey participants indicate a high turnover intention, but that only 27 reported actual turnover behavior within the following 12 months. We further theorize this turnover intention-behavior gap by identifying IT personnel's personality as an important moderating variable for this relation. Specifically, IT personnel more disposed to resisting change translate turnover intentions into actual turnover behavior more seldom than IT personnel less disposed to resisting change. Our study also focuses on how personality influences changes in IT personnel's job-related beliefs and whether or not actual turnover behavior has a positive influence on these beliefs. Our results show that more change-resistant IT personnel change their degrees of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more seldom than less change-resistant personnel and that IT personnel who quit their job change their degree of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more frequently. Our results also show that intentions are a more suitable predictor for less change-resistant individuals than for change-resistant ones.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
The impact of business process management and applicant tracking systems on recruiting process performance: An empirical study
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p.421-453, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s11573-014-0758-9 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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This research focuses on the effects of different business process management components in combination with information technology on recruiting process performance. The results of a study of Germany's largest 1,000 business enterprises (response rate 13.1 percent) reveal that business process analysis, business process improvement and the usage of applicant tracking systems reduce recruiting process costs. Specifically, the cycle time of the recruiting process can be shortened significantly through business process controlling and process analysis, and by using an applicant tracking system that supports the design and evaluation of key performance indicators. Business process standardization combined with applicant tracking systems and business process documentation as well these systems used together with business process controlling have a significant positive impact on stakeholder satisfaction with the recruiting process. The general quality of the process can be improved through business process controlling as well as through a combination of applicant tracking systems and business process controlling. Our results reveal that several components of the business process management in conjunction with a supporting applicant tracking system have differing impacts on recruiting process performance. This paper discusses these diverse effects of business process management on process performance and draws implications for information systems success research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
Information technology as daily stressor: pinning down the causes of burnout
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p. 349-387, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11573-014-0759-8 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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The research presented in this article aims to identify information technology-related stressors in daily work life that might contribute to burnout. We provide a detailed analysis of techno- and work-stressors, techno- and work-exhaustion, as well as the consequences of and interrelations among these perceptions. Techno-stressors and techno-exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work-stressors, work-exhaustion, and work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed model assesses whether using information technology (IT) or other work-stressors cause exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes in terms of low job satisfaction, low organizational commitment, and high turnover intention. The results of an empirical study with 306 employees show that IT usage causes exhaustion because techno-stressors contribute to techno-exhaustion, which in turn influences work-exhaustion significantly. Our results also reveal that work-exhaustion negatively impacts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention, whereas techno-exhaustion only indirectly causes these psychological and behavioral responses through work-exhaustion. Finally, post hoc analyses identify that employees who use IT as a supporting tool for their daily work process (such as HR workers) report higher levels of techno-exhaustion than employees for whom IT is the core of their work (IT professionals, such as software developers).

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The effect of personality on IT personnel's job-related attitudes: Establishing a dispositional model of turnover intention across IT job types
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 48-66, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2014.27 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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Research on IT personnel has observed that the major predictors for turnover intention are job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Joseph et al. 2007). However, less is known about how these predictors are determined and how they vary according to the different job types of IT personnel. Hence, we develop and evaluate a dispositional model of turnover Intention across IT job types as the first approach in IT turnover research combining the personality traits of the five-factor model (McCrae and Costa 2006) and the basic turnover model found among Western IS professionals (Lacity et al. 2008) into one research model. By the help of the model we analyze the role of personality in IT personnel turnover across four groups of IT roles: consultants, programmers, system engineers and system administrators. The results of an empirical analysis of 813 IT personnel reveal significant differences across the four groups in terms of personality and job-related attitudes. In terms of personality traits, system engineers rank highest in openness and conscientiousness, IT consultants in extraversion, programmers in neuroticism, and system administrators in agreeableness. In 50% of all cases, personality traits are significant predictors for job-related attitudes. Additionally, they indirect affect IT personnel turnover intention. Neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness are also important indirect predictors for turnover intention, whereas openness has only a weak effect and agreeableness no measurable effect.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 24:5, pp. 447-464, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2014.3 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

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As the number of messages and social relationships embedded in social networking sites (SNS) increases, the amount of social information demanding a reaction from individuals increases as well. We observe that, as a consequence, SNS users feel they are giving too much social support to other SNS users. Drawing on social support theory, we call this negative association with SNS usage "social overload" and develop a latent variable to measure it. We then identify the theoretical antecedents and consequences of social overload and evaluate the social overload model empirically using interviews with twelve and a survey of 571 Facebook users. The results show that extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs. offline friends) are factors that directly contribute to social overload while age has only an indirect effect. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include feelings of SNS exhaustion by users, low levels of user satisfaction, and a high intention to reduce or even stop using SNS. The resulting theoretical implications for social support theory and SNS acceptance research are discussed and practical implications for organizations, SNS providers, and SNS users are drawn.

Dwivedi, Y.K., Wastell, D., Laumer, S., Zinner Henriksen, H., Myers, M.D., Bunker, D., Elbanna, A., Ravishankar, M.N., and Srivastava, S.S. (2014)
Research on information systems failures and successes: Status update and future directions
Information Systems Frontiers 17:1, p. 143-157, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10796-014-9500-y (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Information systems success and failure are among the most prominent streams in IS research. Explanations of why some IS fulfill their expectations, whereas others fail, are complex and multi-factorial. Despite the efforts to understand the underlying factors, the IS failure rate remains stubbornly high. A Panel session was held at the IFIP Working Group 8.6 conference in Bangalore in 2013 which forms the subject of this Special Issue. Its aim was to reflect on the need for new perspectives and research directions, to provide insights and further guidance for managers on factors enabling IS success and avoiding IS failure. Several key issues emerged, such as the need to study problems from multiple perspectives, to move beyond narrow considerations of the IT artifact, and to venture into underexplored organizational contexts, such as the public sector.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Transformation of People, Processes, and IT in E-Recruiting: Insights from an Eight-year Case Study of a German Media Corporation
Employee Relations (36:4), p. 415-431, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-07-2013-0079 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Purpose - There is only scarce research about the transformation of e-HRM in general, and of the e-recruiting function in particular. Further, there is not much known of the transformational implications for the related people, process, and information technology (IT). Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the transformation of e-recruiting caused by external influences outside of the organization, we report the results of an eight-year case with a media corporation in order to derive and describe five consecutive steps of an e-recruiting transformation model. Findings - We come up with five stages (transformation of tools, transformation of systems, transformation of workflows, transformation of tasks, and transformation of communication), each influenced by external developments and market tendencies (War for Talent, increasing number of applications, job market switch, globalization of job market, changing communication behavior). Research limitations/implications - This research contributes to literature by explaining the drivers of an e-HRM transformation and the different stages of this transformation process differentiated by the affected people, processes and IT. However, it only observes the transformation in one company, hence the transformation of further e-HRM functions in other companies might differ. Practical implications - We highlight both the transformation of e-recruiting and for the related people, processes and IT, so companies could observe their current status of e-recruiting transformation. Originality/value - This paper represents the first longitudinal approach observing the transformation of e-recruiting by describing different stages and external influences.

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise Content Management
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (5:6), p. 449-452, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12599-013-0291-3 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise-Content-Management
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (55:6), p. 453-456, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11576-013-0384-0 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Analyzing the impact of HRIS implementations on HR personnel's job satisfaction and turnover intention
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:3), p. 193-207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2012.09.001 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A )
One of the 5 most highly cited papers published in Journal of Strategic Information Systems

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An in-depth case of an e-Recruiting system implementation is used while focusing on the level of Human Resource (HR) employees to research unintended consequences during the implementation of Human Resources Information Systems (HRISs). We develop a model that integrates the belief and attitude component of the technology acceptance literature with work-related consequences. We provide evidence for an indirect effect of attitudes toward the HRIS on turnover intention that is fully mediated by job satisfaction. Our results contribute to the literature on systems implementations and technology adoption by suggesting work-related outcomes as important additional success variables.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Online Gaming to Find a New Job - Examining Job Seekers' Intention to Use Serious Games as a Self-Assessment Tool
Zeitschrift für Personalforschung: German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management (26:3), p. 218-240 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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Serious games can be used as self-assessment tools in recruiting processes. We develop a model explaining jobseekers' intentions to use these applications, which help them to gain a realistic idea of the job at hand and allows them to submit their application only if the job truly fits their individual profile. Drawing on organizational justice theory and the technology acceptance literature, our model is empirically evaluated using data from 1,882 jobseekers. The results indicate that jobseekers' intention to use self-assessments is driven in particular by its perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived selection fairness. In contrast, the issue of privacy security has no significant impact on jobseekers' intentions. For firms, using serious games as a self-assessment tool can lead to a reduction in the total number of unsuitable applications they receive.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Bewerbermanagementsysteme in deutschen Großunternehmen: Wertbeitrag von IKT für dienstleistungsproduzierende Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 47-75, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11573-012-0582-z (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Zusammenfassung: In stürmischen Zeiten für die Personalbeschaffung deutscher Großunternehmen aufgrund von Fachkräftemangel können Beschaffungsmanagementsysteme zur Gewinnung neuer Mitarbeiter wertvolle Unterstützung für die Rekrutierung leisten. Zur Untersuchung des Wertbeitrages des automatisierten Aufgabenträgers dieser Systeme, der sogenannten Bewerbermanagementsysteme, wurden Personalverantwortliche der 1.000 größten Unternehmen in Deutschland befragt. Auf Basis der Ergebnisse dieser repräsentativen Umfrage konnten folgende Erkenntnisse für den Wertbeitrag von Bewerbermanagementsystemen als Teil dienstleistungsproduzierender Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme gewonnen werden. Durch den Einsatz dieser Systeme werden primär Zeitreduktionen innerhalb einzelner Prozessabschnitte der Personalbeschaffung und eine Kostenreduktion für die interne Bearbeitung von Bewerbungen erreicht. Eine Verbesserung der Qualität der eingestellten Wunschkandidaten kann hingegen nicht realisiert werden. Es bestehen keine Unterschiede beim Wertbeitrag für das unternehmerische Leistungs- und Lenkungssystem. Auch die Unternehmensgröße hat keinen Einfluss auf denWertbeitrag der Bewerbermanagementsysteme.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Electronic Human Resources Management in an E-Business Environment
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research (11:4), p. 240-25 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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This special issue on Electronic Human Resources Management (E-HRM) in an E-Business environment looks at opportunities and challenges associated with recruiting and developing a firm's workforce in a digital world characterized by endemic talent scarcity, changing values and shifting on- and offline behaviors of candidates and employees. We first draw on a Delphi study with leading HR executives from 25 internationally renowned large firms and on a quantitative survey with 144 HR managers from German top 1,000 firms to delineate the key trends and issues for modern HR executives. Demographic challenges and the war for talent are seen as the most important trends in firms of all sizes and in all industries, even ahead of, for example, Social Media or the global economic crisis. Resulting from these trends, our survey reveals that HR managers' most pressing challenges are staff retention and internal and external employer branding. Overall, the results emphasize the importance for an E-HRM that needs to be both effective - adequately fill vacancies - and efficient - make best use of scarce resources. The papers in the special issue address some of the open issues identified. Overall, in a peer-review process two out of nine submitted articles were selected for the special issue (22 per cent acceptance). The first paper by Stefan Strohmeier scrutinizes how e-portfolios can improve e-recruiting and talent management. The second paper by Sharna Wiblen, David Grant and Kristine Dery uses a single case study to learn how a shift from HRM to E-HRM can affect talent management and people in an organization and transform a firm's IT and HR function.

Münstermann, B., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2010)
The Performance Impact of Business Process Standardization - HR Case Study Insights
Management Research Review (früher: Management Research News) (33:9), p. 924-939 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

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Purpose: This paper intends to enhance the understanding of business process standardization and how it contributes to generate business value. This research is a step towards a solid theoretical framework around business process standardization. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study conducted in a global operating company is completed. Standardization of a certain business process (in our case the recruiting process) is shown to contribute to business value. Findings: By standardizing its recruiting process, the company was able to reduce the "Time-to-Hire" from 92 to 69 days and the overall costs of the recruiting process by about 30 percent. The quality of the applicant data has clearly improved. Clarity and transparency of the recruiting process could be increased while the administrative expense within the HR departments in the distinct business locations could be reduced significantly. Research limitations: As with every case study, the generalizability of our findings is limited because a) the results are based on a single case only and b) because we focus solely on one process - the recruiting process - and do not include other business processes. Practical implications: The case study can be useful for any company that intends to standardize its recruiting process. Clear indications of how to achieve business value out of process standardization are given. Originality/value: This study provides a clear definition of what business process standardization is and how it can lead to increased business value. To practitioners clear indications of how to achieve increased business value by business process standardization are provided. Keywords: Business process standardization, Business value, Human resources information systems, Recruitment Paper type: Case study

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Trunk, N. (2010)
Do as your parents say? - Analyzing IT adoption influencing factors for full and under age applicants
Information Systems Frontiers (12:2), p. 169-183 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2009)
A Framework for Recruiting IT Talent: Lessons from Siemens
MIS Quarterly Executive (8:4), p. 123-197 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

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Recruiting and attracting IT talent remains a challenge for IT executives and will once again come to the forefront as the world's economies begin to emerge from recession. As this happens, we expect skills shortages to rise up the IT management agenda, especially as the "baby boomer" generation begins to retire and as the number of computer science graduates reduces. To help IT recruiters face the challenges, we provide a four-quadrant framework that segments recruitment activities on two dimensions - the recruitment timescale and the scarcity of the skills required. Based on the experiences of German industrial giant Siemens, we have identified the recruitment methods that can be applied in each quadrant and provide an indication of their relative costs. We conclude with eight recommendations for improving the recruitment of IT talent in an era when skilled people increasingly expect to be contacted - even wooed - by prospective employers rather actively searching for opportunities themselves.

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
E-Assessment
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (1:3), p. 263-265 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
E-Assessment
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (51:3), p. 306-308 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Who influences whom? - Analyzing workplace referents' social influence on IT adoption and non-adoption
Journal of Information Technology (14.1), p. 11-24 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

Eckhardt, A. and Laumer, S. (2009)
An IT-Architecture to Align E-Recruiting and Retention Processes
International Journal of E-Services and Mobile Applications (1:2), p. 38-61 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)