Publications by Dr. Christoph Weinert

Conference Articles (Peer Reviewed)

Weinert, C., Pflügner, K., and Maier, C. (2020)
Do users respond to challenging and hindering techno-stressors differently? A laboratory experiment
Proceedings of the 2020 NeuroIS Retreat, Vienna, Austria
(Research in Progress)

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Techno-stressors are typically hindering for users. These then cause adverse user responses, such as techno-exhaustion, which in turn result in reduced task performance. Latest technostress research adds two types of stressors: hindrance techno-stressors (HTS) and challenge techno-stressors (CTS). Using that knowledge, this research-in-progress paper develops a research model assuming that both types of techno-stressors lead to different user responses (e.g., motivation, techno-exhaustion, arousal) and, in turn, have a different impact on task performance. To validate that empirically, we propose a mixed-experimental research design following a pre-post approach with three different treatments (e.g., HTS, CTS, control) using among other different biomarkers (e.g., SC, sAA, cortisol) to measure arousal. The expected contributions and future steps are discussed.

Weinert, C. and Weitzel, T. (2019)
How do users cope with technostress over time? A longitudinal study investigating the intra-individual effects of technostress mitigation
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Munich, Germany
(Research in Progress)

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
How do Users Respond to Technostress? An Empirical Analysis of Proactive and Reactive Coping
Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, USA

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As technostress costs organizations financial resources and threatens the well-being, it is essential for users as well as companies to manage technostress. To do so, users cope proactive by removing or reducing techno-stressors or reactive by restoring users' emotional state. However, literature is limited by explaining what factors lead to proactive and reactive coping in a short-term technostress situation. The present paper addresses these shortcomings by investigating in how techno-stressors and emotional exhaustion influences proactive and reactive coping. Results based on 110 users show that users respond to techno-stressors in a proactive way, whereas users reactively respond to emotional exhaustion. In addition, proactive coping is stronger affected by techno-stressors, and reactive coping is stronger affected by emotional exhaustion. Thereby, we contribute to technostress and coping literature by demonstrating how users respond in short-term technostress situation and highlight the importance of time in the present context.

Weinert, C. (2018)
Improving the IS Literature Rigor on Habit by Looking Through the Theoretical Lens of the Dual-Process Theory
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), San Francisco, USA
(Research in Progress)

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Information system (IS) usage has been extensively researched for decades. These theories are built upon the assumption that human decisions are based only on rationality. However, this notion was challenged in more recent years, as Kahneman (2003) demonstrates that human decisions are not only based on rationality but also on intuition. Kahneman's dual-process theory suggests that cognitive processes underlying social judgments and behavior can be divided into two different systems (system one and system two) depending on whether they operate reflectively or intuitively. Yet, prior IS usage literature examines the construct of habit, which under the evaluation of the dual-process theory is formed in the intuitive system. However, within the research stream of habit, the dual-process theory has not been rigorously considered. Hence, most of the results and implications of habit research are driven by the theoretical assumption of the reflective theories concentrating only on the reflective system and neglect that habit is an unconscious construct formed in the intuitive system. To shed light on IS habit and to improve IS literature rigor on habit, the present research idea aims to analyze IS habit literature to identify whether it has been treated and measured as intuitive or reflective construct.

Weinert, C. (2018)
Coping with Discrepant Information Technology Events: a Literature Review
Proceedings of the 26th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Portsmouth, England
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
Coping theory has been used to explain and predict the behaviors of users facing discrepant information technology (IT) events, i.e., unexpected, negative events that occur due to problems and difficulties when using such technology. However, researchers have examined coping by using a vast array of conceptualizations, discrepant IT events, coping strategies, and behaviors, which have led to considerable het-erogeneity in the existing literature. Therefore, the present paper demonstrates the results of a comprehensive literature review, identifying and analyzing 27 relevant investigations. The present literature review contributes to the literature by identifying six theoretical implications: (1) coping literature can subdivided into research streams on technostress, IT adoption and usage, and IT security, (2) the literature disagrees about the antecedents of coping strategies, (3) coping strategies are heterogeneous, (4) coping strategies show interdependences, (5) coping strategies show paradoxical effects, and (6) development of a framework of coping with discrepant IT events. In addition, the paper proposes new directions for future coping research for all three identified research streams.

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Is Information Technology Solely to Blame? The Influence of Work-home Conflict Dimensions on Work Exhaustion
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

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Using information technology (IT) can blur the boundaries between work and private life and contribute to an IT-based work-home conflict (WHC). Organizations and governments treat IT usage as the main source of WHC and have implemented laws and policies to restrict access to IT to reduce WHC. In this paper, we investigate the effect of IT usage-related and work-based dimensions of WHC: time-, strain-, and behavior-based WHC. Understanding the dimensions of WHC can help organizations and governments move beyond IS usage restrictions to identify and prevent the negative consequences of each dimension for employees, such as work exhaustion. We distinguish IT- from work-based dimensions and theorize their effect on work exhaustion. The results of a study of 542 employees show that the IT-based dimension of WHC only indirectly influences work exhaustion, whereas time- and strain-based WHC contribute significantly and directly to work exhaustion. Implications for research and practice are suggested.

Weinert, C. (2016)
Coping the Dark Side of IT Usage - Mitigating the Effect of Technostress
Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Alexandria, Virgnia USA
(Research in Progress)

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
What happens when users are not able to perform coping mechanisms? An investigation of the habituation process
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA
(Research in Progress)
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
In some situations individuals are unable to perform coping mechanisms against technostress because of low controllability and resources. Thereby, they are repeatedly exposed to technology-related stimuli named IT-stressors, which should result in several user responses such as emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and poor performance. However, in these situations individuals might habituate to the IT-stressor such that the user responses are mitigated. We assume that the influence of the IT-stressor on emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and performance is moderated by this habituation effect. Therefore, we propose an experimental setting in which individuals are repeatedly exposed to a computer breakdown to which they might get used to over time. During the experiment, we draw on self-reporting and objective methods to capture user responses after each exposure to the IT-stressor, in order to analyze the change of the user responses across time. Thereby, we expect the results to contribute to technostress and coping literature.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Implicit Attitudes: An Investigation of Implicit Attitudes and Their Influences on Behavioral Intentions
Proceedings of the 14th Annual HCI/MIS Research Workshop (Pre-ICIS-Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

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Attitudes are one of the three most-frequently studied antecedence of user behavior. Most of the investigations in the research stream of IS acceptance and usage have a pure focus on explicit attitudes, although psychological literature distinguishes between explicit and implicit attitudes. These unconscious automatic associations individuals make between an attitude object and its favorable or unfavorable evaluation are not taken into consideration in IS acceptance and usage literature. Hence, the present research zooms into the attitude construct by distinguishing between explicit and implicit attitudes and investigates their influences on behavioral intentions. Based on the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) and a survey, we conducted a study that captures explicit and implicit attitudes, to evaluate the research model. The research reveals that explicit and implicit attitudes are distinct constructs and that not only explicit but also implicit attitudes have an effect on behavioral intention towards using the IS.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Extending Moore's Exhaustion Model: Including Further Dimensions of Burnout and Investigating Their Influence on Turnover Intention Among IT Professionals
Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Newport Beach, California USA

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This research focuses on burnout as a driver of turnover intention amongst IT professionals. We extend Moore's exhaustion model by including further dimensions of burnout into the model, namely depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. The effect of stressors on these dimensions and the original dimension of emotional exhaustion is investigated, as is their influence on turnover intention among IT professional. Results based on a data sample of 154 IT professionals show that not only emotional exhaustion but also depersonalization leads to turnover intention. This outcome cannot be neglected when trying to reduce turnover intention in an organization in order to maintain competitive advantages. Moreover, while the stressors suggested by Moore influence emotional exhaustion, they only slightly explain the dimensions of depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. This indicates that these two dimensions of burnout are caused by additional factors, which represents a research gap worth investigating in future research.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Do we behave based on our implicit attitudes? Proposing a research model and an experimental study to investigate their influence on behavioral intentions
Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Münster
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Attitudes are one of the three most-frequently studied independent variables to explain user behavior. However, although psychological literature distinguishes between explicit and implicit attitudes, most of the investigations in the research stream of IS acceptance and usage have a pure focus on explicit attitudes and do not consider implicit attitudes. Explicit and implicit attitudes can be contradictory and both might predict behavioral intention. Therefore, the present research-in-progress focuses on closing the research gap of refraining to differentiate attitudes in explicit and implicit attitudes and hence examining the influence of implicit attitudes on user behavior. Based on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and surveys, we propose an experimental setting that measures explicit and implicit attitudes to validate the research model. The proposed research might contribute to the research stream of IS acceptance and usage by better predicting behavioral intentions by also considering implicit attitudes. Future results might explain distorted predictions of behavior and reduce the intention behavior gap. Furthermore, the present research-in-progress introduces a suitable method to measure implicit attitudes.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
What does the skin tell us about information systems usage? A literature-based analysis of the utilization of electrodermal measurement for IS research
Proceedings of the 2015 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria

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The term NeuroIS appears more frequently within the field of information system (IS). NeuroIS describes the idea of applying cognitive neuroscience theories, methods, and tools to obtain physiological responses of the user while using IS. However, before adopting these methods into IS research, a proper assessment is necessary to determine whether the methods used in other disciplines are also applicable to IS research. The present research introduces the method of measuring the electrodermal activity (EDA). Thereby, the physiology and different measurement parameters are described. By identifying the use of EDA within other disciplines, the present research reveals application areas for EDA in six different research streams in IS research and poses further research questions, which might be answer by applying EDA in these areas.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Why are teleworkers stressed? An empirical analysis of the causes of telework-enabled stress
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Osnabrück

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Despite the wide dissemination and acceptance of teleworking, there are negative effects for employees. Literature shows that these negative effects of telework lead to undesired outcomes for teleworkers such as telework-exhaustion. The present research, however, goes one step further by identifying three significant telework-characteristics and hypothesizing the relationship between telework-characteristics and telework-enabled stressors. By doing so, one can understand the reason why telework-enabled stressors are perceived and identify the source of these stressors, which can then be counteracted to maintain the advantages of teleworking. Therefore, this research investigates the influence of the following telework-characteristics - information undersupply, autonomy, and isolation - on telework-enabled stressors and accordingly on telework-exhaustion and on the intention to continue teleworking. Results of an analysis on 310 teleworkers show that telework-characteristics influence telework-enabled stressors and accordingly increase the extent of telework-exhaustion and decrease the intention to continue teleworking.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weinert, C. (2015)
Enterprise resource planning systems induced stress: a comparative empirical analysis with young and elderly SAP users
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Osnabrück

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In this research study we investigate whether and how ERP system characteristics cause its users to experience stress. In order to do so, we analyze a research model explaining enterprise resource planning systems induced stress with an empirical study in two organizations (N=227). The results reveal that usefulness, complexity, reliability, and pace of change are important ERP system characteristics leading to the perception of stressors and exhaustion. Furthermore, our comparative empirical analysis with young and elderly ERP users indicate that the elderly ones perceive ERP characteristics more negatively and are more stressed and exhausted than the younger users.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2014)
The Relationship between Psychological, Physiological, and Behavioral Strain towards Technostress
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2014)
Technostress-induced Skin Conductance Response Patterns and Performance
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Does teleworking negatively influence IT professionals? An empirical analysis of IT personnel's telework-enabled stress
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research, Singapore

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Despite the wide dissemination and acceptance of teleworking in the IT industry, companies like Yahoo!, HP, or Best Buy have stopped their telework programs, which indicates that there might also be some negative side effects in this type of work. In regard to this, our research focuses on one particular negative side of teleworking by focusing on teleworking-induced stress of IT professionals. We theorize that teleworking-induced stressors influence IT personnel's psychological and behavioral strain in the form of exhaustion due to teleworking and discontinuous intention towards teleworking. Results of an empirical online survey with 57 IT professionals validate these dependencies, which gives us the grounds to identify work overload, work-home conflict, information underload, and social isolation as influence factors of exhaustion due to teleworking. Further results reveal that discontinuous intentions towards teleworking is directly influenced by social isolation and exhaustion due to teleworking, whereas the influence of work overload is mediated by exhaustion due to teleworking. Work overload due to telework has the strongest effect on exhaustion due to teleworking, which in turn is the strongest influence factor on the discontinuous intention towards teleworking.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The influence of coping mechanisms on technostress
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Milan, Italy

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This paper uses a laboratory experiment with perceptual and objective measures from skin conductance response to analyze the influence of different coping strategies on behavioral and psychological strain in the context of techostress. Thereby, behavioral strain is objectively observed in terms of task fulfillment and psychological strain by skin conductance response in four treatment groups, classified by receiving different coping strategies. Initial results of our research reveal that users with no-coping are strained more than those how utilized coping strategies during stressful situations. This also takes place subsequently to the IT-stressor, as the slope of the skin conductance level is negative when applying coping strategies. However, the first results of the SCR indicate that coping strategies have no influence on behavioral strain such as end-user performance. Furthermore, results of a MANOVA outline that the psychological strain level significantly differs between the treatment groups.

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Effect of Coping Mechanisms on Technology Induced Stress: Towards a Conceptual Model
Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago (IL)

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Information and communication technology induced stress, called technostress, influences users negatively. Numerous investigations are made about technostress; however, none consider the concept of coping in order to explain strategies to avoid these negative consequences. Therefore, this paper develops a theoretical model to explain the coping process and how it influences technostress. The model theorizes that threat and coping appraisal are major determinants of emotional- and problem-focused coping whereby coping resources and individual's controllability influence the choice and the efficacy of coping. The resulting problem- or emotional-focused coping strategies are theorized to moderate the stressor-train relationship such that negative consequences can be avoided. The theoretical model suggests a different perspective on the linear view on the relationship between stressors and strain by proposing the consideration of the moderation effect of coping.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
The negative side of ICT-enabled communication: the case of social interaction overload in online social networks
Proceedings of the 21th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Utrecht, The Netherlands

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This research aims to explain the negative side of ICT-enabled communications. Therefore, the perception of users that social interactions on online social networks (OSN) are threatening is suggested as a new variable called social interaction overload. The paper theorizes that individual, OSN-specific, and OSN-specific communication characteristics manifest the extent to which social interaction overload is perceived and how users response to it in a psychological and behavioral manner. Results of an empirical survey with 246 OSN users validate the assumed effects, so that we identify age, number of friends, and communication content as contribution factors of social interaction overload, which in turn has a direct effect on the two outcome variables satisfaction and continuous usage intention. Moreover, results reveal that social interaction overload has higher effects on OSN users' satisfaction than perceived usefulness or perceived enjoyment.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2012)
The Shady Side Of Facebook: The Influence Of Perceived Information And Network Characteristics On The Attitude Towards Information Overload
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

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This research paper analyzes the impact of information and network characteristics on the affective, cognitive, and behavioral attitude towards information overload (IO) on Facebook. By using an information overload model and the data of 300 active Facebook users it can be shown that the various categories of attitude are influenced by different factors. The level of determination of the behavioral attitude towards IO is lower than the level of determination of the affective and cognitive attitude towards IO. The identified antecedents of IO explain up to 36 per cent of the variance of IO. Results indicate that affective and cognitive attitude towards IO are more influenced by these antecedents as the behavioral attitude towards IO. Furthermore, results reveal that the amount of information an individual receives is the major predictor of all three dimensions of attitude. Several implications for adoption research are discussed.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Is Facebook Usage Becoming Stressful? Proposing and Validating a Theory of Stress-induced ICT Discontinuous Usage
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Shanghai, China

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Our research responds to an actual phenomenon that individuals experience fatigue while using popular social networking platforms as Facebook. Based on the stress-strain-outcome model, a theory of stress-induced ICT discontinuous usage is proposed to explain this phenomenon. The theory focuses on ICT-induced stress in voluntary usage settings in the household context. The theory provides an extended understanding of stress, as it focuses besides techno-stress on information, interaction, and social overload. The theory argues that an individual's perceived stress in terms of these four stress dimensions is a contributing factor for strain (e.g. emotional exhaustion), which in turn influences one's satisfaction with a technology and the corresponding usage behavior. As technology usage in households is predominately voluntary, we suggest discontinuous usage intention as new dependent variable to capture the phenomenon observed that individuals decrease usage intensity and to respond to current calls for understanding user resistance in a more appropriate way. Consequently, the paper explains how different dimensions of perceived stress mediated by strain influence an individual's resistance behavior. The proposed theory is validated with the help of an empirical study (n=523). Several implications for IT adoption research are discussed.